شناسایی برخی از قارچ های عامل پوسیدگی بنه زعفران و کنترل آن‌ها

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد

چکیده

جهت شناسایی عوامل قارچی پوسیدگی بنه زعفران و کنترل آن‌ها، از مزارع و محل‌های نگهداری بنه، واقع در بشرویه از توابع استان خراسان جنوبی، نمونه‌برداری صورت گرفت. پس از کشت بافت‌های آلوده، گونه‌های قارچیPenicillium digitatum، Aspergillus nigerو Rhizopus stoloniferجداسازی و شناسایی گردید. جهت کنترل این بیمارگرها از چهار غلظت از سوسپانسیون باکتری Pseudomonas fluorescens CHAO، قارچ Trichoderma harzianum Bi و قارچ‌کش‌های اکسی‌کلرورمس و بنومیل در چهار تکرار استفاده شد. بر اساس میزان قطر پرگنه رشد یافته از بیمارگر و مقایسه با شاهد، میزان اثر کنترلی عوامل کنترل زیستی و ترکیبات شیمیایی اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج به‌دست‌‌آمده نشان داد که بیشترین میزان کنترل در مورد قارچ همستیز، مربوط به غلظت‌های7 10×1 و 8 10×1 و در مورد باکتری همستیز به ترتیب مربوط به غلظت‌های 9 10×1 و 1010×1 بوده است. در مورد ترکیبات شیمیایی به‌کار رفته بیشترین میزان اثر کنترلی در مورد بنومیل و اکسی‌کلرورمس به‌ترتیب در غلظت‌های3-10×3 و 3-10×4 به‌دست آمد. در مقایسه کلی تیمارها، قارچ T. harzianum بیشترین اثر را در کاهش رشد پرگنه قارچ‌های بیمارگر داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of some saffron corm rot fungi and their control

نویسنده [English]

  • Ayatollah Saeedizadeh
Assistant Professor of Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Shahed University
چکیده [English]

In order to isolation and identification of causal agents of corm rot and their control, the sampling was done from corms in farms of Bushroueye, southern Khorasan province. After culturing of sections of infected corms, the fungi, Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizopus stolonifer were isolated and identified. For their control test, four concentrations of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHAO, Trichoderma harzianum Bi, and four concentrations of fungicides, cupper oxichlorore and benomil,were used with four replications. The control effect of antagonists and fungicides were determined by measurement of diameter of pathogens colony on medium. The results showed that the maximum of control of antagonistic fungus were obtained in concentrations of 1×107 and 1×108, and in the case of antagonistic bacterium wereshown in concentrations of 1×109 and 1×1010. The fungicides had maximum control in concentrations of 3×10-3 and 4×10-3. In general, among of the treatments, T. harzianumwas most effective to reducing the growth of pathogenic fungi.

Biocontrol, Antagonist, Saffron, Southern Khorasan.

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