اثر شخم حفاظتی و آبیاری تابستانه بر عملکرد گل و شاخص‌های کیفی زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه.

2 عضو هیات علمی پژوهشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد

3 عضو هیات علمی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربت حیدریه.

4 پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر شخم حفاظتی و آبیاری تابستانه بر رشد و عملکرد زعفران، آزمایش مزرعه‌ای طی دو سال به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در منطقه زاوه شهرستان تربت حیدریه انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل اجرای شخم (به دو صورت حفاظتی و شخم معمولی) و چهار زمان آبیاری تابستانه (15 تیرماه، 15 مردادماه، 15 تیر + 15 مردادماه و عدم آبیاری تابستانه) بودند. طبق نتایج تجزیه واریانس، زمان آبیاری اثر معنی‌داری بر تعداد و عملکرد گل زعفران در سال اول و دوم آزمایش داشت. در سال اول اجرای آزمایش، آبیاری در تیر + مردادماه بیش‌ترین تأثیر را در افزایش تعداد گل، عملکرد گل و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران داشت (به ترتیب 25 گل در متر مربع، 1/12 و 16/0 گرم کلاله خشک در متر مربع). همچنین در سال دوم، بیشترین میزان شاخص‌های ذکرشده (4/127 گل در متر مربع، 4/61 و 97/0 گرم در متر مربع) در نتیجه اجرای آبیاری در مردادماه مشاهده گردید. در سال اول اجرای آزمایش، شخم حفاظتی در مقایسه با عدم شخم اثر معنی‌داری در افزایش عملکرد گل و وزن خشک کلاله (به‌ترتیب تا 3/11 و 7/11 درصد) داشت. همچنین آبیاری تابستانه و شخم حفاظتی تأثیر معنی‌داری در افزایش پیکروکروسین زعفران داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Summer Irrigation and Conservation Tillage on Flower Yield and Qualitative Characteristics of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Feizi 1
  • Abdollah Mollafilabi 2
  • Hossein Sahabi 3
  • Ahmad Ahmadian 4
1 Assistant Professor of Agriculture Faculty and Saffron Institute, University of Torbat-e-Heydarieh.
2 Research institute of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad, Iran
3 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Torbat-e-Heydarieh.
4 Saffron Institute, University of Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of summer irrigation and conservation tillage on flower characteristics and corms behavior of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), a field experiment was conducted during 2009- 2010, at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran. A factorial trial based on complete randomized block design with four replications was used. The experimental treatments were all combination of summer irrigations (July, August, July + August and no irrigation) and conservation tillage (application and non- application). Based on analysis of variance, in the first and second years, summer irrigation had significant effects on number and flower yield of saffron. In the first year, the highest number of flower, flower and stigma yield of saffron significantly observed by irrigation on July + August (25 flowers per m2, 12.1 and 0.16 g.m-2, respectively,). In the second year, irrigation in August had highest significant effects on mentioned characteristics of saffron (127.4 flowers per m2, 61.4 and 0.87 g.m-2, respectively). In the first year, flower and stigma yields of saffron significantly increased by conservation tillage (by 11.3 and 11.7%), as compared to control (no conservation tillage). In addition, summer irrigation and conservation tillage significantly increased picrocrocin content.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm
  • Picrocrocin
  • Safranal
  • Tillage

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