تأثیر تاریخ کاشت و اندازه بنه بر عملکرد گل و صفات فیزیولوژیک زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) در شرایط آب و هوایی دشت ورامین

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، پردیس ابوریحان- دانشگاه تهران

2 استادیار گروه علوم زراعی و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس ابوریحان- دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت و اندازه بنه‌ مادری بر عملکرد و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی زعفران، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پردیس ابوریحان- دانشگاه تهران واقع در دشت خشک ورامین در سال زراعی 93-1392 به اجرا درآمد. چهار تاریخ کاشت 20 خرداد، 16 شهریور، 5 مهر و 20 مهر و دو وزن بنه مادری شامل 9-5 گرم و 14-10 گرم به‌عنوان تیمار مدنظر قرار گرفتند. صفات فیزیولوژی مورد ارزیابی شامل محتوای غلظت پرولین و پروتئین برگ و صفات عملکرد گل شامل تعداد گل و وزن خشک کلاله در مترمربع اندازه‌گیری شدند و تاریخ آغاز گل‌دهی در هر تیمار یادداشت‌برداری گردید. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که کاشت بنه‎‌های درشت با وزن 14-10 گرم در تاریخ کشت 20 خردادماه بیشترین عملکرد را با تولید 7/62 عدد گل در مترمربع و 299/0 گرم کلاله ‌خشک در مترمربع داشت. میزان غلظت پرولین برگ در بنه‌های ریز (9-5 گرم) در تاریخ کاشت 20 مهرماه و میزان غلظت پروتئین برگ در بنه‌های ریز (9-5 گرم) در تاریخ کشت 20 خردادماه بیشتر از سایر تاریخ‌ها بود. افزایش میزان غلظت پرولین موجب افزایش مقاومت گیاه نسبت به شرایط خشکی و همچنین سرما در بنه‌های کشت‌شده در تاریخ‌ 20 مهر، به‌خصوص بنه‌های کوچک شد. به‌طورکلی، نتایج این تحقیق بیانگر آن است که عملکرد در سال اول بیشتر متأثر از اندازه بنه می‌باشد و کشت بنه‌های درشت (14-10 گرم) در تاریخ 20 خرداد در دشت ورامین، عملکرد مناسبی در سال اول در پی خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of planting date and corm size on flower yield and physiological traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under Varamin plain climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Ghobadi 1
  • Moahammad Ghorbani Javid 2
  • Ali Sorooshzadeh 3
1 Student in Agronomy, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding Sciences, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Pakdasht, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of different planting dates and the corm size on yield and some physiological characteristics of saffron, an experiment was conducted as factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, is located in Varamin dry plain during growing season 2013-2014. Four planting dates, 10 June, 7 and 27 September and 12 October and two corm sizes 5-9 g and 10-14 g were considered as treatments. Evaluated physiological traits include such as proline and protein content in leaves and yield traits, include number of flowers and dry weight of stigma were measured and were examined in a square meter and starting date of flowering were recorded. The results of this research showed that cultivation of large saffron corms (10-14 g) on planting date of 10 June, had Maximum yield, by production 62.7 number of flower and 0.299 gram dry weight of stigma in a square meter. Leaf proline concentration of small saffron corms (5-9 g) on planting date of 12 October and leaf protein concentration of small saffron corms (5-9 g) on planting date of 10 June, were higher than the other planting dates. Increasing proline concentration increased plant resistance under drought and cold in corms planting on 12 October, particularly small corms. In general, these results indicate that flower yield in first year is more influenced by corm size and planting of large corms (10-14 g) on 10 June will have a suitable production.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry weight of stigma
  • Protein
  • Proline
  • Start of flowering

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