اثر تراکم کاشت و منابع کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر جذب فسفر توسط بنه‌های دختری زعفران طی دوره رشد گیاه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشکده زعفران، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه.

2 مدرس دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربت حیدریه و دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربت حیدریه.

چکیده

جهت بررسی اثر تراکم کاشت و منابع کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر روند تشکیل بنه‌های دختری زعفران و جذب فسفر توسط آن‌ها، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 12 تیمار و سه تکرار در دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به اجرا درآمد. منابع مختلف کودی شامل تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف کود)، کود شیمیایی (150 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن + 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسفر) و کود گاوی (25 تن در هکتار) به‌عنوان عامل اول و تراکم‌های (25، 50، 75 و 100 بنه در مترمربع) به‌عنوان عامل دوم آزمایش بودند. همچنین پنج نمونه‌برداری از بنه‌های زعفران در طی فصل رشد (30 آبان، 30 آذر، 30 دی، 31 فروردین و 31 اردیبهشت) انجام شد. طبق نتایج آزمایش، بیشترین تعداد بنه‌های دختری کمتر از 4 گرم در بوته (8/5 بنه در بوته) در زمان نمونه‌برداری چهارم مشاهده گردید و پس از آن تعداد این بنه‌ها در بوته کاهش یافت. در هر یک از سطوح تراکم، کاربرد کود دامی در مقایسه با کود شیمیایی نقش بیشتری در افزایش معنی‌دار تعداد، وزن بنه‌های دختری و میزان جذب فسفر در آن‌ها (1/4 تا 8 و 1/8 تا 12 گرمی در بوته) داشت. همچنین در زمان نمونه‌برداری پنجم، کاربرد کود دامی نسبت به کود شیمیایی منجر به افزایش معنی‌دار تعداد بنه‌های بیش از 8 گرم در بوته و نیز میزان فسفر در بنه‌های بیش از 8 گرم در بوته (تا حدود دو برابر) شد. به‌نظر می‌رسد کاهش تراکم کاشت بنه‌ها می‌تواند از طریق افزایش درصد تشکیل بنه‌های درشت‌تر به‌ازای هر بوته، تا حدودی کاهش عملکرد زعفران در واحد سطح را جبران کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) replacement corms during phonological stages

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Feizi 1
  • Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi 2
  • Hossein Sahabi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Agriculture Faculty and Saffron Institute, University of Torbat-e-Heydarieh.
2 M.Sc. of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
3 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Torbat-e-Heydarieh.
چکیده [English]

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) propagates by replacement corms producing from the mother corm after flowering during each season. In order to investigate the effect of corm planting density, organic and chemical fertilizers on formation and phosphorus uptake of saffron replacement corms during phonological stages, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications, at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. The experimental treatments were all combination of different levels of planting density (25, 50, 75 and 100 corms per m2) and fertilizer sources (manure 25 t. ha-1, chemical fertilizer (N 150 kg ha-1 + P 75 kg ha-1) and control). Due to different sampling dates of replacement corms during phonological stages (21 November, 21 December, 20 January, 20 April and 21 May, respectively), the experimental data were analyzed as factorial - split in time based on a randomized complete block design. Based on results, the highest number of replacement corms lower than 4 g (5.8 corms per plant) were observed in fifth sampling stage and then decreased. In all levels of planting density (25 to 100 corms per m2), the effects of manure on increasing the number, weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 4.1 to 8 and 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly higher than chemical fertilizer. In fifth sampling stage, by applying the manure, the weight and phosphorus content of replacement corms in range of 8.1 to 12 g per plant were significantly increased (approximately twice), as compared to chemical fertilizer. It seems the decrease in saffron yield as result to decreasing the corm planting density can be slightly offset by increasing the percentage of larger corms formation per plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Manure
  • Phonological stages
  • Phosphorus content in corm

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