ارزیابی اثرات بافت خاک بر رشد و عملکرد زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی کوتاه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 استاد گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

3 استادیار گروه پژوهشی زعفران، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

4 کارشناس ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی سرایان، دانشگاه بیرجند.

چکیده

به‌منظور مطالعه اثرات بافت خاک بر عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 93-1392 در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تیمار و چهار تکرار در جعبه اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از: 1- 100% خاک مزرعه + کود گاوی، 2-70% خاک مزرعه + 30% ماسه‌بادی، 3- 70% خاک مزرعه + 30% ماسه‌بادی + کود گاوی و 4- 70% ماسه‌بادی + 30% خاک مزرعه + کود گاوی. نتایج آزمایش بیان‌گر اثر معنی‌دار بافت خاک بر تمامی صفات مربوط به عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران بود. مقایسه میانگین‌ها نشان داد که بیشترین وزن‌تر گل، وزن خشک کلاله (به ترتیب 59/1 و 10/0 گرم در هر جعبه کاشت) و وزن خشک گلبرگ (12/0 گرم در هر جعبه کاشت) در تیمار 70% ماسه + 30% خاک + کود گاوی به دست آمد. بیشترین تعداد بنه با قطر 3-2 سانتی‌متر، در تیمار 70% خاک + 30% ماسه + کود گاوی (75/3 عدد در هر جعبه کاشت) و بیشترین تعداد بنه‌ با وزن 6-3 (75/1 عدد در هر جعبه کاشت) و 9-6 گرم (25/1 عدد در هر جعبه کاشت)، در تیمار 70% ماسه + 30% خاک + کود گاوی به دست آمد. افزون بر این، کمترین مقادیر اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه در تیمار 100% خاک مزرعه + کود گاوی مشاهده شد. به‌طور‌کلی، کاشت زعفران در خاک دارای بافت سبک موجب بهبود رشد بنه و افزایش عملکرد گل و کلاله شد. بنابراین، به نظر می‌رسد می‌توان با کاشت زعفران در زمین‌های دارای بافت مناسب و یا از طریق اصلاح خاک و سبک‌تر کردن بافت خاک مزرعه، عملکرد گل و بنه گیاه زعفران را افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the effects of soil texture on yield and growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Aghhavani Shajari 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Hamid-Reza Fallahi 3
  • Reza Taherpour Kalantari 4
1 Ph.D. student of Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
2 Professor of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
3 Saffron Research Group, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand.
4 Ms.C. of Agronomy, Sarayan Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand.
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted to study the effect of soil texture on flower and corm yield of saffron. This experiment was carried out based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four treatments and four replications in box at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. Treatments included of: 1- 100% field soil + cow manure, 2- 70% field soil + 30% sand, 3- 70% field soil + 30% sand + cow manure and 4- 70% sand + 30% field soil + cow manure. Results showed that the effect of soil texture was significant on all flower and corm properties. The highest flower and stigma fresh weight per box (1.59 and 0.10 g, respectively) and petal dry weight (0.12 g) were observed in 70% sand + 30% field soil + cow manure. The highest corm number in 2-3 cm diameter per box was obtained in 70% field soil + 30% sand + cow manure (3.75 numbers). Treatment of 70% sand + 30% field soil + cow manure produced the highest corm number in 3-6 g (1.75 numbers) and 6-9 g (1.25 numbers) per box, but the lowest values of most studied indices were obtained in 100% field soil + cow manure. Generally, our results indicated that light soil texture has more advantages than heavy soil texture in saffron cultivation. Therefore, soil modification through lighter soil application can improve saffron flower and corm yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • clay soil
  • Saffron
  • Stigma dry weight
  • Substrate
  • Yield

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