بررسی امکان جایگزینی کود دامی با سایر بهبود دهنده‌های رشد آلی در زراعت زعفران (Crocus sativus L) در وزن‌های مختلف بنه مادری

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تولید و فرآوری گیاهان استراتژیک خراسان جنوبی، جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان جنوبی

2 مدیر مجتمع تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی، جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان جنوبی

3 مدیرعامل شرکت معدنی کان شرق، خراسان جنوبی

10.22048/jsat.2019.165266.1331

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف مقایسه تأثیر بهبود دهنده‌های رشد آلی (امولسیون آلی-معدنی با نام تجاری امیک، اسید­هیومیک با نام تجاری هیوماکس، کود دامی و شاهد بدون تغذیه) و وزن بنه مادری (0 تا 4 گرم، 1/4 تا 8 گرم و 1/8 تا 12 گرم) بر عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران، به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی، با سه تکرار طی سال‌های زراعی 97- 1396 و 98- 1397 در مجتمع تحقیقات گیاهان دارویی جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان جنوبی اجرا گردید. بر اساس نتایج استفاده از بهبوددهنده‌های رشد آلی در مقایسه با شاهد بر اکثر صفات مورد بررسی در سال اول کشت تأثیر معنی‌داری نداشت. اما در سال دوم و طی دوره 21 روزه گلدهی زعفران، تیمار کود دامی وزن خشک کلاله را نسبت به تیمار شاهد، هیوماکس و اُمیک به ترتیب 3/77، 7/71 و 9/58 درصد افزایش داد. با برازش خط رگرسیونی بین عملکرد تجمعی کلاله و روزهای پس از گلدهی مشخص شد که عملکرد زعفران در تیمارهای کود دامی، اُمیک، هیوماکس و شاهد به ترتیب 01/19، 43/11، 92/10 و 65/10 میلی‌گرم در روز افزایش می‌یابد. بعلاوه بالاترین وزن خشک گل در سال دوم با 2858 میلی‌گرم در مترمربع به تیمار کود دامی تعلق داشت. اما بالاترین میزان صفات مورد مطالعه در هر دو سال به تیمار بنه بزرگ و پایین‌ترین آن به تیمار بنه کوچک تعلق داشت. در سال اول وزن کلاله در تیمار بنه بزرگ با 22/82 میلی‌گرم در مترمربع نسبت به تیمار بنه کوچک حدود 190 برابر بیشتر بود؛ هرچند این اختلاف در سال دوم به کمتر از 3 برابر کاهش یافت. بعلاوه بالاترین تعداد (36/466 عدد در مترمربع) و وزن (55/936 گرم در مترمربع) بنه دختری نیز در تیمار بنه‌های مادری بزرگ به دست آمد. اما در سال دوم آزمایش با کاهش اختلاف بین سطوح وزن بنه مادری، تأثیر دو سطح بنه بزرگ و متوسط بر وزن کلاله، وزن گل و تعداد گل به لحاظ آماری معنی‌دار نبود. نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که استفاده از کود دامی در زراعت زعفران به دلیل ویژگی‌های منحصربه‌فرد آن ازجمله بهبود شرایط فیزیکی خاک توسط سایر بهبوددهنده‌های رشد آلی قابل جبران نیست. بعلاوه اجتناب از کاشت بنه‌های مادری با وزن کمتر از 4 گرم به دلیل تأثیر نامطلوبی که بر عملکرد اقتصادی زعفران دارد، باید مورد توجه کشاورزان قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Studying the possibility of replacing manure with other organic amendments in saffron (Crocus sativus L.) cultivation at different mother corm weights

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Ebrahimi 1
  • Mohsen Pouyan 2
  • Mohammad Mahdi Nezhad 3
1 Assistant Professor of Production and Processing of Strategic Plants of Sothern Khorasan Department, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Southern Khorasan Province
2 Head of Medicinal Plants Research Complex, Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research, Southern Khorasan Province, Birjand, Iran
3 CEO of Kan Shargh Mining Corporation, Sothern Khorasan Province, Birjand, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different organic amendments (cow manure, humic acid (Humax® 95–WSG), an organic-mineral-based emulsion (Omic®) and unfertilized control) and mother-corm weight (0 to 4 g, 4.1 to 8 g and 8.1 to 12 g) on flower and corm yield of saffron. The experiment was conducted as factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Complex of Medicinal Plants, ACECR of Southern Khorasan Province, Iran in 2017-18. According the results, evaluating the main effect of nutrition factor revealed no significant impact on most studied traits in the first year. However, in the second year and during the 21-day period of saffron flowering, cow manure treatment increased stigma dry weight by 77.3, 71.7 and 58.9% compared with control, Humax and Omic treatments, respectively. By fitting the regression line between the cumulative dry weight of the stigma and days after flowering, it was found that stigma dry weight increased 19.1, 11.43, 10.92 and 10.65 mg.day-1 in cow manure, Omic, Humax and control treatments, respectively. In addition, the highest flower dry weight with 2858 mg.m-2 was recorded in cow manure treatment. The highest and lowest amount of the studeid tratis in both years belonged to big and small corm treatments, respectively. In the first year, stigma dry weight in big corm treatment with 22.28 mg.m-2 was about 190 times higher than that of small one. However the difference in the second year fell to less than 3 times. In addition, the highest number (466.36 m-2) and weight (936.559 g. m-2) of daughter corms were obtained in big mother corms treatment. In the second year however by the reduction of the differences between mother corm weight treatments, stigma dry weight, flower dry weight and number of flowers in big and medium corm treatments were not statistically significant. Overall, the results of this study showed that the advantages of using manure in saffron cultivation due to its unique characteristics, such as improving the physical conditions of the soil is not compensable by other organic amendments. Moreover, the avoidence of planting mother corms less than 4g because of their adverse effects on saffron yeild is of main importance in saffron cultivation and must be considered by farmers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Organic-mineral-based emulsion
  • linear regression
  • Cow manure
  • Daughter corm
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