تأثیر سطوح مختلف کود محرک زیستی نوافل و وزن بنه مادری بر رشد رویشی، گلدهی و محتوای کلروفیل زعفران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گرایش گیاهان دارویی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

4 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران، تربت‌حیدریه، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2019.133954.1303

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر وزن بنه مادری و مصرف کود محرک زیستی نوافل بر رشد برگ­ها، محتوای کلروفیل و عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آماری بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1396- 1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند انجام شد. عوامل آزمایشی شامل کود زیستی نوافل (به­صورت مایع با نام تجاری Novafol و حاوی 28 درصد اسید آمینه، با مقادیر صفر، 2 و 4 لیتر در هکتار به­صورت غوطه­وری بنه و مصرف در آب آبیاری) و وزن بنه مادری (4-1/0، 8-1/4 و12-1/8 گرم به­ترتیب به­عنوان بنه­های ریز، متوسط و درشت) بودند. مصرف کود زیستی نوافل بر صفات تعداد گل، عملکرد گل، عملکرد­ کلاله و محتوای کلروفیل a تأثیر معنی­داری داشت. بیشترین تعداد گل (5/16 عدد در متر­مربع)، عملکرد گل­تر (63/5 گرم در متر­مربع)، عملکرد کلاله خشک (108 میلی­گرم در متر­مربع) و غلظت کلروفیل a (09/1 میلی­گرم در گرم وزن­تر برگ) از تیمار کاربرد 4 لیتر در هکتار و کمترین مقادیر مربوط به صفات تعداد گل (22/14 در متر­مربع)، عملکرد گل (55/4 گرم در متر­مربع)، عملکرد کلاله خشک (85 میلی­گرم در متر­مربع) و کلروفیل a (97/0 میلی­گرم در گرم وزن تر) در شاهد (عدم مصرف کود زیستی نوافل) به دست آمد، اما از حیث صفات مذکور تفاوت آماری معنی­­­­­­داری بین سطوح 2 و 4 لیتر در هکتار کود زیستی نوافل یافت نشد. وزن بنه­های مادری نیز تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه را بطور معنی­داری تحت تأثیر قرار داد. بیشترین مقدار طول کلاله (1/25 میلی­متر)، عملکرد گل (4/10 گرم در مترمربع)، طول برگ (42/31) و متوسط وزن تر و خشک برگ (به ترتیب 29/0 و 083/0 گرم در بوته) از بنه­های درشت (12-1/8 گرم) و کمترین مقدار آن­ها از بنه­های ریز (کمتر از 4 گرم) به­دست آمد. برهم­کنش وزن بنه مادری و مصرف کود محرک زیستی نوافل نیز بر محتوای کلروفیل b و کلروفیل کل و نیز تعداد برگ در بوته معنی­دار شد. بیشترین غلظت کلروفیل b و کلروفیل کل (به ترتیب 77/1 و 95/2 میلی­گرم در گرم وزن تر برگ) و تعداد برگ (58/7 عدد در بوته) از تیمار مصرف 4 لیتر در هکتار کود محرک زیستی نوافل  و بنه­های درشت بدست آمد. در مجموع، استفاده از کود محرک زیستی نوافل به میزان 4 لیتر در هکتار رشد رویشی و زایشی گیاه را بهبود بخشید. کاشت بنه­های مادری درشت نیز نقش مؤثری در افزایش رشد و عملکرد زعفران داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different levels of novafol bio-fertilizer and mother corm weight on vegetative growth, flowering and chlorophyll content of saffron

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sakineh Khandan Deh Arbab 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Aminifard 2
  • Hamid Reza Fallahi 3
  • Hamed Kaveh 4
1 M.Sc Student in Medicinal Plants, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Irann
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production, Researcher Saffron Institute, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the impact bio fertilizer novafol and mother corm weight on leaves growth, chlorophyll content and flower and stigma yields of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), an experiment was done as randomized complete block design with three replications in the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand, during the growth season of 2016-17. Experimental factors were amino acid application (Novafol, containing 28% amino-acid. Applied as corm soaking + fertigation in three levels: 0, 2 and 4 L.ha-1) and mother corm weight (0.1-4, 4.1-8 and 8.1-12 g). The effect of bio-fertilizer novafol was significant on the flower number, flower yield, dry stigma yield and chlorophyll a content. The highest flower number (16.5 per m-2), flower yield (5.63 g m-2), dry stigma yield (0.108 g m-2) and chlorophyll a content (1.09 mg. g-1 FW) were obtained from 4 L.ha-1, while, the lowest flower number (14.22 per m-2), flower yield (4.55 g m-2), stigma yield (0.085 g. m-2) and chlorophyll a (0.97 mg. g-1 FW) were gained in control treatment, but, there was no significant difference between two levels (2 and 4 L.ha-1) novafol bio fertilizer. Corm weights aslo significantly affected all studied traits. The highest stigma length (25.1 mm), flower yield (10.4 g m2), leaf length (31.42 cm) and fresh and dry weight of leaves (0.29 and 0.083 g per plant, respectively) were obtained from big corms, but the lowest of them were obtained from small ones. Interaction effect of corm weight and novafol bio fertilizer was significant on chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll contents and number of leaves per plant. The highest chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll (1.77 and 2.95 mg. g-1 FW, respectively) and number of leaves (7.58 per plant) were obtained from 4 L.ha-1 of novafol bio fertilizer and big corm. Overall, application of novafol bio fertilizer (4 L.ha-1) improved the vegetative and reproductive growth parameters. Big corms planting also had an important role in increasing the growth and yield of saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amino-acid
  • Flower yield
  • Nutrient Management
  • Photosyntetic pigments
  • Stigma
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