بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و وزن بنه بر ویژگی‌های گل، کلاله و بنه‌های دختری‌ زعفران (Crocus sativus L) در شرایط اقلیمی جنوب کرمان

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری، عضو هیات علمی بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران

3 کارشناس بخش تحقیقات زراعی باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران

4 کارشناس سازمان جهاد کشاورزی جنوب استان کرمان، جیرفت، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2019.168153.1334

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و وزن بنه بر ویژگی­های گل، کلاله و بنه­های دختری زعفران آزمایشی بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه اسفندقه مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب استان کرمان در سال زراعی 97-96 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش از فاکتوریل سه تاریخ کاشت (خرداد، مرداد و شهریور) و چهار وزن بنه (8-6، 10-8، 12-10 و بیشتر از 12 گرم) بدست آمد. صفات مرتبط با گل، کلاله و بنه در طول فصل رشد اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد اثر تاریخ کاشت بر تمامی صفات بجزء صفت وزن خشک تک کلاله معنی­دار می­باشد. همچنین اثر وزن بنه و اثر برهمکنش تاریخ کاشت در وزن بنه بر تمامی صفات معنی­دار بود. به­طوری­که بیشترین تعداد گل و عملکرد کلاله در تاریخ کاشت خرداد ماه و وزن بنه بیشتر از 12 گرم بدست آمد. بنابراین برای دستیابی به عملکرد بالا در سال اول، تاریخ کاشت خرداد و استفاده از بنه­های بالای 12 گرم توصیه می­گردد. بررسی ویژگی­های بنه­های دختری در سال اول آزمایش نشان داد که تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه تحت تأثیر تاریخ کشت قرار گرفته ولی اثر وزن بنه بر صفات تعداد بنه دختری بالای 6 گرم، متوسط وزن بنه­های دختری بیشتر و کمتر از 6 گرم معنی­دار نیست. با توجه به نتایج صفات مرتبط با بنه­های دختری می­توان پیش­بینی کرد که در سال بعد اختلافی از لحاظ عملکرد و اجزای آن میان سطوح مختلف بنه مادری وجود ندارد. نتایج در سال دوم نشان داد عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد تنها تحت تأثیر تاریخ کاشت قرار گرفته و وزن بنه اثر یکسانی بر آن­ها دارد. تاریخ کاشت 15 خرداد در سال دوم بعنوان برترین تاریخ کاشت بود. با توجه به نتایج بدست آمده و قیمت پایین بنه زعفران در خرداد ماه، در مناطق کوهپایه­ای جنوب کرمان، کشت زعفران بایستی در 15 خرداد انجام شود. از آنجاییکه در سال اول آزمایش عملکرد چندانی حتی از بنه­های مادری درشت­تر بدست نمی­آید و با توجه به اینکه بنه­های مادری با وزن­های مختلف در سال دوم نقش یکسانی در تعیین عملکرد کلاله دارند جهت کاهش هزینه­های تولید، بنه­های 8-6 گرم برای کشت توصیه می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of planting date and corm weight effects on flower, stigma and doughter corms characters of saffron(Crocus sativus L.) under South Kerman climatic conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seid Mohammad Alavi Siney 1
  • Ahmad Ahmadpour Jolgeh 2
  • Mohammad Behroozeh 3
  • Majid Soltani 4
1 Assistant professor of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Southern Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran.
2 PhD student, Faculty member of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Southern Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran
3 Expert of Horticulture Crops Research Department, South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Jiroft, Iran
4 Expert of South Kerman Agricultural-Jihad, Jiroft, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate planting date and corm weight Effects on flower characters and saffron(Crocus sativus L.) yield, an experiment as a factorial was carried out based on randomized complete blocks design with three replications in research station of South Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center at Sfadagheh during 2017-2018 growing season Two factors, planting date (Jun, August and September) and corm size (6-8, 8-10, 10-12 and >12g) were evaluated in this experiment. Related traits with flower and Stigma and cormwere measured during growing season. Results showed that planting date have significant effect on all of traits except of dry weight of stigma. Also, the effects of corm weight and interaction of planting date×corm weight were significant on all of traits. So, the highest number of flower and the stigma yield were observed in the planting date of June and the corm weight more than 12 g. Therefore, for achieving high saffron yield, it is recommended planting date of June and the use of corms with more than12 g. Investigating the characteristics of the doughtercorms in the first year of the experiment showed that all studied traits were influenced by the planting date and the effect of the corm weight was not significant on the characteristics of the number of doughter corm over 6 g, the average weight of the doughter corm more and less than 6 g. According to the results of the traits related to the doughter corm, it can be anticipated that in the following year there is no difference in yield and its components among the different levels of maternal corm. Results in the second year showed that yield and yield components were only affected by the planting date and the corm weight had the same effect on them. The planting date of June 5th was the highest in the second year. According to the results and low price of saffron in June, in Southern Kerman foothill areas, cultivation of saffron should be done on June 5th. Since in the first year of the experiment, the yield don't achieved even from great mothernal corm, and given the fact that the mother corms of different weights in the second year have the same role in determining the stigma yield, in order to reduce the production costs, the 6 -8 g recommended for cultivation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • planting date
  • flower number
  • Stigma
  • Corm size
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