بررسی اثر کشت مخلوط افزایشی زعفران و زیره سبز در تاریخ‏های مختلف کاشت بر عملکرد کمی و کیفی دو گونه

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

پژوهشکده فناوری تولیدات گیاهی دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان و گروه مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

10.22048/jsat.2019.156395.1325

چکیده

این تحقیق به‏منظور بررسی تأثیر نسبت‎های کشت مخلوط افزایشی زیره سبز (Cuminum cyminum L.) و زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) در تاریخ‏های کاشت بر عملکرد دو گیاه، به‏صورت اسپلیت-پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در یک مزرعه که سال دوم کشت آن بود در دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر در سال 96-1395 اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایشی شامل تاریخ کاشت زیره سبز در چهار سطح  (20 آبان، 20 آذر، 15 اسفند و 15 فروردین) به‏عنوان فاکتور کرت اصلی و نسبت‏های کشت مخلوط افزایشی زعفران با زیره‏سبز در 6 سطح (کشت خالص زعفران (50 بوته در متر مربع)، کشت خالص زیره سبز (120 بوته در متر مربع)، کشت مخلوط 100 درصد زعفران + 25، 50، 75 و 100 درصد تراکم مطلوب زیره سبز) به‏عنوان فاکتور فرعی بود. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل تعداد چتر در بوته، درصد اسانس، عملکرد بذر، بیولوژیک و اسانس زیره سبز و همچنین تعداد گل، عملکرد گل، عملکرد کلاله، تعداد بنه دختری، وزن بنه دختری و تعداد بنه ناسالم زعفران بود. نتایج نشان داد در کلیه نسبت‏های کاشت، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد زیره سبز با تأخیر در کاشت کاهش قابل توجهی یافت. میزان کاهش عملکرد زیره سبز در تاریخ کاشت اسفند و فروردین نسبت به تاریخ کاشت آبان به ترتیب حدود 39 و 64 درصد بود. درصد اسانس زیره سبز در تاریخ کاشت‏های آبان (79/2 درصد)، آذر (78/2 درصد) و فروردین (83/2 درصد) بیشتر از اسفند (42/2 درصد) بود. تعداد بنه دختری زعفران تحت تأثیر تیمارهای مورد بررسی قرار نگرفت ولی درصد بنه ناسالم در کشت اسفند و فروردین بیشتر از پاییزه بود. با تأخیر در کاشت و افزایش تراکم زیره سبز در کشت مخلوط، وزن بنه کاهش معنی‏داری نشان داد. میزان عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران تحت تأثیر کشت پاییزه زیره سبز بطور چشم گیری بیشتر از کشت بهاره آن بود. کشت مخلوط تأثیر منفی بر تولید زعفران داشت و بیشترین عملکرد کلاله زعفران (97/2 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در کشت خالص این گیاه حاصل شد. بطورکلی، بالاترین (51/1) مقادیر LER در کشت مخلوط پاییزه زعفران و زیره سبز مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing effect of cumin and saffron additive intercropping at various planting dates on quantitative and qualitative yield of the plants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rooholla Moradi
  • Nsibeh Pourghasemian
Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production (RTIPP), Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, and Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study effect of various additive intercropping series of saffron and cumin on their yields, and yield components, an experiment was conducted as split-plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications in a two years saffron research farm in agricultural faculty of Bardsir at 2016-2017. The experimental treatments were planting dates (November 11, December 11, March 6 and April 4) assigned to main plot, and additive intercropping series (25, 50, 75 and 100% of optimum density of cumin (120 plant m-2), sole saffron (50 plant m-2), sole cumin) as subplot. The studied traits were including number of umbrella per plant, essential oil percentage, seed, biological and essential oil yield, and also saffron flower number, flower yield, stigma yield, number of replacement corm, corm weight and number of infected corm. The results showed that delaying in cumin planting date led to a notable decrease in cumin yield and yield components, in all the planting patterns. The reduction values of cumin seed yield in March and April planting dates compared to November were 39% and 64%, respectively. Cumin essential oil at November (2.79%), December (2.78%) and April (2.83%) planting dates were higher than March (2.42%). The experimental treatments had no significant effect on corm number, but cumin planting at spring contained greater infected corms than fall planting. The corm weight was declined as affected by delay in planting date and increase in cumin density. The saffron flower and stigma yield in fall intercropping was significantly higher than spring intercropping. Intercropping had negative impacts on saffron productivity, and the highest stigma yield (2.97 kg ha-1) was assigned to sole cropping. In general, the maximum (1.51) LER was related to fall intercropping of cumin and saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essential oil
  • irrigation
  • LER
  • Replacement corm
  • Stigma
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