تحلیل رقابت پذیری بنگاه های صادرکننده زعفران ایران در بازارهای جهانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه اقتصادکشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 استاد گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

3 دانشیار گروه اقتصادکشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

10.22048/jsat.2019.174203.1337

چکیده

تجارب چندساله اخیر ایران نشان می­دهد که تکیه اقتصاد به درآمد حاصل از فروش نفت خام، بی­ثباتی درآمد صادراتی را به­دنبال دارد. به­منظور کاهش وابستگی اقتصاد ایران به صادرات نفت خام، جهت­گیری سیاست­های صادراتی باید به سود صدور کالاهای غیرنفتی از جمله صادرات محصولات کشاورزی تغییر یابد. زعفران یکی از اقلام مهم صادراتی ایران است که در سال­های اخیر علی رغم افزایش سطح زیرکشت و تولید ، میزان صادرات آن رشد چشمگیری نداشته است. نتایج پژوهش­های مختلف در ایران نشان می­دهد یکی از دلایل مهم عدم موفقیت شرکت های ایرانی در بازار جهانی صادراتی گیاهان دارویی، کاهش قدرت رقابت­پذیری در این بازارها در سال­های اخیر است. از این رو این مطالعه بر آن است تا به بررسی عامل­های مؤثر بر رقابت پذیری شرکت­های صادرکننده زعفران ایران در بازارهای جهانی بپردازد. اندازه گیری رقابت پذیری با استفاده از شاخص مزیت نسبی آشکار شده متقارن و تحلیل عوامل اثر گذار بر آن با استفاده از الگوی رقابتی الماس پورتر و مدل رگرسیونی پانل لاجیت کسری مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. آمار و اطلاعات لازم از  طریق جمع آوری پرسشنامه از 35 شرکت صادرکننده زعفران برای سالهای 1395- 1390 به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد عوامل شش­گانه الگوی الماس پورتر شامل شرایط تقاضا، شرایط عوامل، صنایع پشتیبان، استراتژی بنگاه، دولت و اتفاقات و حوادث غیر قابل پیش بینی، بر وضعیت رقابتی شرکت­های مورد مطالعه اثرگذار می­باشند. بر این اساس رعایت استاندادهای صادراتی به لحاظ کمی و کیفی، جلوگیری از نوسانات قیمتی زعفران، کاهش نوسانات نرخ ارز متناسب با سیاست­های دولت، کاهش نوسانات تولیدی به دلیل تغییرات اقلیمی با ارائه راهکارهای فنی و توجه کافی شرکت­هابه استراتژی­های بازاریابی در کوتاه­مدت و بلند­مدت به عنوان پیشنهاد جهت بهبود وضعیت رقابتی شرکت­های مورد مطالعه مطرح می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Competitiveness of Iran's Saffron Exporting Companies in Global Markets

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyed hosein Mohammadzadeh 1
  • Alireza Karbasi 2
  • Hossein Mohammadi 3
1 Ph.D., Student of Agricultural Economic Department, Agricultural Faculty, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad
2 Professor of Agricultural Economic Department, Agricultural Faculty, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad
3 Associate Professor of Agricultural Economic Department, Agricultural Faculty, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad
چکیده [English]

     Recent multi-year experiences in Iran show that reliance on income from the sale of crude oil leads to instability in export earnings.  In order to reduce the dependence of the Iranian economy on crude oil exports, export policies should be directed towards export of non-oil commodities, including exports of agricultural products. Saffron is one of the most important export items of the agricultural sector and medicinal plants. However, its production and export has not grown exponentially in recent years despite growing allocation of land and production. The results of various studies in  have shown that one of the main reasons for failure of Iranian companies in the world market for exporting medicinal herbs is decline in competitiveness in these markets in recent years. Therefore, this study seeks to examine factors affecting competitiveness of Iran's saffron exporting companies in global markets. Competitiveness measurements using symmetric revealed comparative advantage index and analysis of its influencing factors were analyzed using the Porter Diamond Competitive Model and Fractional Logit Panel regression model. The statistics and data were collected through collecting questionnaires from 35 saffron exporter companies for 2011-2016. The results showed that the six components of the Porter diamond model including demand conditions, factor conditions, supporting industries, firm strategy, state and unpredictable events affect the competitive situation of the companies under study. Accordingly, observance of quantitative and qualitative export standards, prevention of fluctuations in the price of saffron, reduction of exchange rate fluctuations in line with government policies, reduction of production fluctuations due to climate change by providing technical solutions and sufficient attention of companies to marketing strategies are proposed as new ways to improve the competitive situation of the companies being studied.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Competitiveness
  • Saffron
  • Export
  • Porter diamond pattern
Aghazadeh, H., Estiri, M., and Asanlou, B. 2017. Investigating the effective components on the competitiveness of Iranian enterprises. Quarterly Journal of Sustainable Growth and Development 7 (3): 17-34. (In Persian).

Amini, A., and Zare, S. 2017. Analysis of the role of the real exchange rate and its fluctuations on Iran's industrial exports. Quarterly Journal of Financial Economics 11 (38): 21-57. (In Persian).

Borza, A., and Borza, M. 2014. An economic state production and marketing of pineapple in Meghalage state, a case study of east and west Agro Gills districts. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 12 (47): 447-448.

Babaie, SH., and Pashazadeh, Y. 2016. Investigating the factors influencing the achievement of sustainable competitive advantage in exporting agricultural products to Russia. Master's Thesis, Urmia University 3 (17): 112-129. (In Persian).

Chipili, J.M. 2013. Exchange rate volatility and trade flows in Zambia. African Development Review 25 (1): 55-66.

Ferve, C., and Beamish, P.W. 2015. A resource-based approach to the study of export performance. Journal of Small Business Management 8 (41): 242–261.

Ghaderi, A. 2018. Examining saffron market revenue and choosing marketing channel for trade. Econometrical Journal 58 (4): 328-349.

Ghuth, M. 2005. Competitiveness of large companies in the field of economics and factors affecting it. Journal of Economic and Social Research 12 (2): 39-48.

Hatef, H., Daneshvar Kakhki, M., Kohansal, M., Banayian, M., and Shahnoshi Froshani, N. 2017. Evaluation of economical vulnerability to climatic fluctuations (Case study: Khorasan Razavi province). Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 4 (2): 61-70.

Hosseini, S., and Jahangiri, Z. 2015. Development of export strategy for agricultural products in Bushehr province. First National Conference on Future Studies, Management and Development, Tehran, Center for the Development of Modern Education in Iran 8 (13): 27-44. (In Persian).

Islamic Republic of Iran Customs. 2016. Deputy planning and planning, foreign trade statistics journal of Iran. Office of Statistics and Machine Services. Available at Web site: http://www.irica.gov.ir/web_directory/55334.html (verified April 2017). (In Persian).

Institute for Planning Research, Economics of Agriculture and Rural Development. 2018. Summary of study group reports. Available at Web site: http://www.agri-eri.ac.ir/dorsapax/userfiles/file/nezamtajdid.pdf. pp. 44-81. (In Persian).

International Organization for Standardization (ISO). 2016. Reports publication. Available at Web site: https://www.iso.org/ standards.html. P.138-141.

Khorshidi, GH., Hajipour, B., Azizi, SH., and Eidani, H. 2017. Designing and explaining the pattern of export development in Iran's free trade zones. Quarterly Journal of Business Research 21 (83): 35-65. (In Persian).

Kashefi, M., Mohammadi, H., and Abolhasani, L. 2016. Investigating the role of marketing strategies on export performance of Iranian saffron. Master's thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.11-13. (In Persian with English Summary).

Kashi, M., Ebrahimi, M., and Yavari Gohar, F. 2016. Prioritizing factors affecting Iran's competitiveness in halal tourism. Master's Thesis, Allameh Tabataba'i University.17-19. (In Persian).

Lund, D., Claver, E., and Andreu, R. 2017.  Foreign market entry mode in the herbal medicine: the impact of country- and firm- specific factors.  International Business Review 4 (16): 362–376.

Lotfali Pour, M.R., and Bazargan, B. 2016. Investigating effects of effective, effective exchange rate, export and import changes on Iran's trade balance. Journal of Sustainable Development and Development Researches 16 (1):67-92. (In Persian).

Mirzaie Adinehvand, S., Shokat Fadaie, M., and Khaledi, M. 2017. An Analysis of the competitive advantages of exporting date in Iran based on the porter Diamond Model. Master's Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Payame Noor University of Tehran Province,Iran. (In Persian with English Summary).

Mehrabi Bashr Abadi, H., and Pour Moghadam, A. 2012. Effective factors on the relative advantage of Iranian raisins exports. Journal of Agricultural Economics Research 4 (1): 118-134. (In Persian).

Mohammadzadeh, S.H., and Karbasi, A. 2018. Impact of oil revenues shocks on exports of saffron. Quarterly Journal of Agronomy and Technology of Saffron 6 (4): 88-101. (In Persian).

Mohammadzadeh, S.H., Karbasi, A., and Mohammadi, H. 2018. Factors affecting the selection of strategies for entry into the foreign market of medicinal plants case Study: Khorasan Razavi Province. Quarterly Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 32 (2): 117-131. (In Persian).

Moradi, M., and Shafaie, A. 2015. Investigating the role of competitiveness on the development and expansion of business companies in Iran. Journal of Sustainable Development and Development Researches 17 (3): 117-137.

Porter, M. 2006. Industrial sector, perceived environmental uncertain ty and entry mode strategy. Journal of Business Research 55: 495– 507.

Porter, M. 1990. Competitiveness and its determinants in the economics. Journal of Economics and Applied Research 31: 128- 170.

Pakravan, M.R. and Gilanpour, A. 2013. A survey of export potential perspective and competitiveness of Iranian agricultural products in the Middle East and North Africa. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 27 (1): 48-69. (In Persian).

Pesaran, M.H., and Shin, K. 2005. Measuring globalization industries and national industry Approach: Empirical evidence across five countries and over ime. Journal and nternational Business Studies, Fourth Quarter 4 (11): 28-49.

Rasekhi, S., Hakim Abadi, M., and Jabari, V. 2016. The determinants of Iran's competitiveness in the agricultural sector. Journal of Agricultural Economics Research 8 (30): 17-45. (In Persian).

Rasekhi, S., and Jabari, V. 2015. Investigating the effect of economic instability on international competitiveness in Iranian agriculture. Quarterly Journal of Strategic and Macroeconomic Policies 3 (12): 137-154. (In Persian).

Research Center of the Majlis. 2018. Data and statistics published. Available at Web site: http://rc.majlis.ir/fa (Verified April 2018).

Shokat Fadaie, M., Mirzaie Adinehvand, S., and Khademolmahdieh, J. 2017. A review of the competitive advantages of date export in Iran, The First National Conference on Modern Iranian Studies and the World in Management, Economics and Accounting and Humanities, Shuster Applied Scientific University.10-12 March 2017, pp.47-53. (In Persian).

Taheri Rikandeh, A., Pakravan, M., Gilanpour, A., and Abolghasemi, F. 2016. Assessing Iran's competitiveness in the Global market of medicinal herbs and prioritizing export-import Destinations. Journal of Agricultural Economics 10 (1): 153-174. (In Persian).

Union of Exporters of Khorasan Razavi Province. 2018. Reports and Statistics. Comprehensive Research Published. Available at Web site http://www.kheu.ir/ (verified 3 September 2018).pp. 93- 117.