ارزیابی عملکرد و شناسایی مناطق مستعد کشت زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) در استان خراسان رضوی بر اساس شاخص‌های دمایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 استاد گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

در بین محصولات کشاورزی، زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) ازجمله ارزشمند‌ترین محصولاتی است که با توجه به ویژگی‌های خاص خود، امکان گسترش تولید و صادرات آن وجود دارد. در بیشتر مناطق کشور به علت نیاز آبی کم این محصول و سازگاری مناسب آن با شرایط محیطی، امکان کشت این گیاه وجود دارد. لذا در سال ‌های اخیر سطح زیر کشت زعفران به‌ خصوص در استان خراسان رضوی افزایش‌یافته است. در پژوهش حاضر آﻣﺎر و اﻃﻼﻋﺎت ماهیانه‌ درجه حرارت حداقل، درجه حرارت متوسط، درجه حرارت حداکثر و نیز اختلاف درجه حرارت شبانه‌روز در شهرستان ‌های دارای کشت زعفران در استان خراسان‌ رضوی در یک دوره 20 ساله به همراه ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮد زﻋﻔـﺮان در این دوره، جمع ‌آوری و با استفاده از نرم‌افزار SPSS معادلات رگرسیون برآورد گردید. سپس با استفاده از معادلات به‌دست‌آمده و نرم‌افزار ArcGIS به پهنه‌بندی مناطق مستعد کشت زعفران پرداخته شد. نتایج نشان داد عملکرد زعفران به‌شدت تحت تأثیر درجه حرارت بوده، اما این تأثیر بسته به اقلیم هر منطقه متفاوت است. همچنین بررسی نقشـه‌های پهنه‌بندی ایجادشده بر اساس معادلات رگرسیونی ایجاد شده نشان داد که مناطق جنوبی استان ازجمله بخش هایی از شهرستان گناباد دارای بهترین موقعیت از لحاظ پارامترهای مورد بررسی برای کشت زعفران بوده (عملکرد 4/88-4/21 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و این عملکرد از جنوب به سمت نواحی شمالی استان روندی کاهشی داشت؛ به ‌طوری‌که شهرستان‌ های مرکزی استان مانند تربت ‌حیدریه، کاشمر و خواف دارای عملکرد متوسط (4/21-3/53 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و شهرستان ‌های شمالی مانند قوچان دارای عملکرد نسبتاً ضعیف (3/53-2/85 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و تقریباً معادل نصف مناطق جنوبی استان بود. همچنین مطابقت این نقشه ‌ها با نقشه پهنه ‌بندی عملکرد واقعی زعفران همبستگی بالای عملکرد زعفران با عوامل اقلیمی، به‌ خصوص پارامترهای دمایی را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of yield and identifying potential regions for Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) cultivation in Khorasan Razavi province according to temperature parameters

نویسندگان [English]

  • Moein Tosan 1
  • Amin Alizadeh 2
  • Hosein Ansari 3
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 4
1 M.Sc. student of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
2 Professor of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
4 Professor of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad.
چکیده [English]

Saffron is cultivated in most part of Iran, because of low water requirement and well adaptation to diverse environmental condition. In recent years, for many reasons such as low water requirement, saffron cultivation areas has been increased especially in Khorasan Razavi province. Temperature is one of the most important factors in saffron flowering phenomena. The aim of this research was to evaluate the response of saffron to temperature in Khorasan Razavi province counties (Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Gonabad, Nishabour, Sabzevar and Ghoochan). Climatic data (monthly minimum, average, maximum temperatures and diurnal temperature range) and saffron yield data were collected for past 20 years period. The stepwise regression methods were used to remove extra parameters and only keep the most important ones. By using these equations and ArcGIS software zoning, Spline method was find the best for saffron crop zoning. The results of linear regression in Gonabad showed that minimum, maximum and average temperature and also diurnal temperature range in March and April months had the greatest impact on saffron yield. For each of the four indices (the minimum, maximum and average temperature and also diurnal temperature range) the best area for saffron cultivation was the southern part of the province (particularly Gonabad); so by increasing distance from this area to north areas (such as Kashmar, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Sabzevar, Nishabour, Mashhad and finally Ghoochan) saffron yield reduced by 30 to 50 percent. Therefore, the northern areas of the province had relatively low saffron yield. According to result of this research, saffron yield in Khorasan Razavi province was significantly influenced by temperature parameters. Flowering which basically is the most important stage of plant growth, is directly setting up with temperature.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate
  • Regression
  • Saffron Yield
  • Temperature
  • Zoning

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