ارزیابی متابولیت‌های ثانویه، محتوای فنل کل و خواص آنتی‌اکسیدانی گلبرگ در جمعیت‎های زعفران تحت شرایط آبیاری مرسوم و یکبار آبیاری

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 استاد گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

4 پژوهشگر پسا دکترای گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

10.22048/jsat.2019.187000.1352

چکیده

گلبرگ زعفران که از لحاظ وزنی بخش قابل توجهی از گل زعفران را تشکیل می‌دهد سالانه در مقادیر زیاد به عنوان ضایعات دور ریخته می‌شود. در حالی­که این قسمت گل دارای ترکیباتی از جمله فنل، آنتوسیانین و فلاونوئید با خواص آنتی‌اکسیدانی هستند. به منظور ارزیابی متابولیت‌های ثانویه، محتوای فنل کل و ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی گلبرگ در 8 جمعیت زعفران، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در دو شرایط آبیاری مرسوم و یکبار آبیاری در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه زنجان بر روی بوته‌های سال سوم زعفران به اجرا درآمد. جهت اندازه‌گیری متابولیت‌های ثانویه، محتوای فنل کل گلبرگ و تعیین خواص آنتی‌اکسیدانی عصاره گلبرگ زعفران به ترتیب از روش‌های طیف نورسنجی فرابنفش- مرئی، فولین سیوکالتیو و  DPPHاستفاده گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب در دو شرایط آبیاری مرسوم و یکبار آبیاری نشان داد که متابولیت‌های ثانویه و خواص آنتی‌اکسیدانی در دو شرایط آبیاری تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. در حالی­که از نظر محتوای فنل کل در شرایط یکبار آبیاری افزایش معنی‎دار مشاهده شد. جمعیت تربت‌جام بیشترین مقدار فنل کل (56/86 میلی‌گرم گالیک اسید بر گرم عصاره متانولی) را در شرایط یکبار آبیاری داشت. در هر دو شرایط آبیاری، جمعیت‌های مورد ارزیابی مقادیر مناسبی از متابولیت‏های ثانویه، فنل و آنتی‌اکسیدان را داشتند، که می‌تواند برای استفاده در صنایع غذایی، دارویی و شیمیایی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Secondary Metabolites, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Properties of Petal in Saffron Populations Under Conventional and once Irrigation Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • parisa sheykholeslami 1
  • Jalal Saba 2
  • Farid Shekari 3
  • Mohammad Reza Azimi 3
  • Azam Maleki 4
1 MSc. Student of Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Professor of Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Associate Professor of Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
4 Postdoc. Researcher of Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Each year a large amount of saffron petals which make up a significant proportion of saffron flowers are discarded as waste while this part of the flower also contains compounds such as phenol, anthocyanin, flavonoid and antioxidant properties. Two separate experiments were conducted using randomized complete block design with three replications in order to evaluate secondary metabolites, total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of petals in eight saffron populations under normal and once irrigation conditions  at the research farm of university of Zanjan on three year old saffron plants. In order to measure and determine secondary metabolites, total phenol content and antioxidant properties of saffron petal extract, UV-Visible  Metering Spectra, folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH were used, respectively. Combined analysis of variance under normal and once irrigation conditions showed that the difference between secondary metabolites and antioxidant properties was not significant in the two irrigation conditions. While, total phenol content was significantly higher under the once irrigation condition, the  Torbat-e-jam population had highest total phenol content (86.66 mg gallic acid per gram of methanolic extract) under this condition. In both irrigation conditions, the evaluated populations exhibited suitable amounts of picocrocin, safranal, phenol and antioxidant properties which can be considered to be of use for us in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crocin
  • Folin-ciocalteu
  • Free radical
  • Limited irrigation
  • Picocrocin and Safranal
Afrazeh, Z., Bolandi, M., Khorshidi, M., and Mohammadi nafchi, A. 2014. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of aqueos and alcoholic extracts (methanol, ethanol) saffron petals. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 2 (3): 231-236.

Aghaei, M., and Rezagholizadeh, M. 2011. Iran's comparative advantage in production of saffron. Journal of Economics and Agriculture Development 25 (1): 121-132.

Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraie, Z., Niazmand, R., and Najaf najafi, M. 2016. Optimization of the subcritical water extraction of phenolic antioxidantsfrom Crocus sativus petals of saffron industry residues: Box-Behnkendesign and principal component analysis. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 36: 234-244.

Alavi-Siney, M. 2015. Evaluation of saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) echotypes diversity in Zanjan conditions. PhD dissertation. Faculty of Agriculture. Zanjan University of Zanjan, Iran.

Anonymous. 2012. Saffron, test methods. INSO 259-2. Iranian National Standardization Organization.

Bagherzade, Gh., and Manzaritavakoli, M. 2015. Qualitative and quantitative investigation of phytochemical factors of wastage of Crocus sativus L. and determination of anthocyanin content using ultrasound waves. Journal of Saffron Research (semi-annual) 4 (2): 149-158.

Barreales, D., Malheiro, R., Pereira, J.A., Verdial, J., Bento, A., Casquero, P.A., and Ribeiro, A.C. 2019. Effects of irrigation and collection period on grapevine leaf (Vitis vinifera L. var. Touriga Nacional): Evaluation of the phytochemical composition and antioxidant properties. Scientia Horticulturae 245: 74-81.

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., and Berset, C. 1995. Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technology 28: 25-30.

Caballero-ortega, H., Pereda-miranda, R., and Abdullaev, F.I. 2007. HPLC quantification of major active components from 11 different saffron (Corcus sativus L.) sources. Food Chemistry 100: 1126-1131.

Chichiriccò, G., Ferrante, G., Menghini, L., Recinella, L., Leone, SH., Chiavaroli, A., Brunetti, L., Di Simone, S., Ronci, M., Piccone, P., Lanza, B., Cesa, S., Poma, A., Vecchiotti, G., and Orlando, G. 2019. Crocus sativus by-products as sources of bioactive extracts: Pharmacological and toxicological focus on anthers. Food and Chemical Toxicology 126: 7-14.

Chimi, H., Cillard, J., Cillard, P., and Rahmani, M. 1991. Peroxyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of some natural phenolic antioxidants. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 68 (5): 307-312.

Gharibi, Sh., Sayed Tabatabaei, B.E., Saeidi, Gh., Talebi, M., and Matkowski, A. 2019. The effect of drought stress on polyphenolic compounds and expression of flavonoid biosynthesis related genes in Achillea pachycephala Rech. F. Phytochemistry 162: 90-98.

Gresta, F., Lombardo, G., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2008. Saffron, an alternative crop for sustainable agricultural systems. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 28 (1): 95-112.

Hoshyar, R., Bhtohei, Z., and Etemadi-kia, B. 2011. Quantitative Comparison of Some Major Metabolites (Crocin, Picrocrosin and safranal) in Different Packages of Saffron in Iran HPLC. Office of Publications, Tarbiat Modares University Press, Central Library 13 (2): 63-71.

Hossein Goli, A., Mokhtari, F., and Rahimmalek, M. 2012. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) petal. Journal of Agricultural Science 4 (10): 175-181.

Hosseini, A., Razavi, M., and Hosseinzadeh, H. 2018. Saffron (Crocus sativus) petal as a new pharmacological target: a review. Iran Journal Basic Med Science 21 (11): 1091-1099.

Melnyk, J.P., Wang, S., and Marcone, M.F. 2010. Chemical and biological properties of the world's most expensive spice: Saffron. Food Research International 43: 1981-1989.

Mohammadian, A., Ahmadvand, H., Karamian, R., Siahmansour, R., Sepahvand, A., and Omidvari, Sh. 2017. Survey and comparison of the antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and flavonoid compounds of saffron petals sowing in different regions of the Lorestan province. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 5 (1): 51-60.

Mzabri, I., Legsayer, M., Aliyat, F., Maldani, M., Kouddane, N. E., Boukroute, A., Bekkouch, I., and Berrichi, A. 2017. Effect of drought stress on the growth and development of saffron (Crocus Sativus. L) in Eastern Morocco. Atlas Journal of Biology 364-370.

Nazari, S., Nazarnezhad, N.J., and Ebrahimzadeh, M.A.2013.Evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoids content of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Pinus sylvestris bark. Iranian Journal of Wood and Paper Science Research 28 (3): 522-533.

Nogués, S., Allen, D.J., Morison, J.I.L., and Baker, N.R. 1998 . Ultraviolet-B radiation effects on water relations, leaf development and photosynthesis in droughted pea plants. Plant Physiology 117: 173–181.

Nouraei,S., Rahimmalek, M., and Saeidi, G. 2018. Variation in polyphenolic composition, antioxidants and physiological characteristics of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var.scolymus Hayek L.) as affected by drought stress. Scientia Horticulture 233: 378–385.

Saeidnejad, A.H., Kafi, M., Khazaei, H.R., and Pessarakli, M. 2013. Effects of drought stress on quantitative and qualitative yield and antioxidative activity of Bunium persicum. Turkish Journal of Botany 37: 930-939.

Salmanian, Sh., Sadeghi-mahoonak, A., Jamson, M., and Tabatabaee-amid, B. 2013. Identification and quantification of phenolic acids, radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power of Eryngium caucasicum Trautv. ethanolic and methanolic extracts. Journal of Research and Innovation in Food Science and Technology 2 (2): 193-204.

Siracusa, L., Gresta, F., Avola, G., Lombardo, G.M., and Ruberto, G. 2010. Influence of corm provenance and environmental condition on yield and apocarotenoid profiles in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23 (5): 394-400.

Stankovic, M.S. 2011. Total phenolic content, flavonoid concentration and antioxidant activity of Marrubium peregrinum L. extracts. Kragujevac Journal Scindeks 33: 63-72.

Temerdashev, Z., Frolova, N., and Kolychev, I. 2011. Determination of phenolic compounds in medicinal herbs by reversed-phase HPLC. Journal of Analytical Chemistry 66 (4): 407-414.

Termentzi, A., and Kokkalou, E. 2008. LC-DAD-MS (ESI+) analysis and antioxidant capacity of Crocus sativus petal extracts. Planta Medica 74 (5): 573-581.

Vakili-ghartavol, M., and Alizadeh-salteh, S. 2016. Comparison between metabolites and antioxidant activity of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Kashmar and Marand regions. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 4 (3): 215-224.

Zahir, A., Abbasi, B. H., Adil, M., Anjum, S., Zia, M., and Ul-Haq, I. (2014). Synergistic effects of drought stress and photoperiods on phenology and secondary metabolism of Silybum marianum. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 174 (2): 693–707.

Zeka, K.C. Ruparelia, K.A. Cantinenza, M.P., Androutsopoulos, V., Vegilo, F., and Arroo, R.J. 2015. Petals of Crocus sativus L. as a potential source of the antioxidants crocin and kaempferol. Fitoterapia 107: 128-134.