با همکاری انجمن علمی گیاهان دارویی ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند و کارشناس امور اراضی

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 گروه پژوهشی گیاه و تنش‌های محیطی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

4 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

شرایط نگهداری بنة مادری زعفران در طی دورة رکود تابستانه، شامل مراحل خواب حقیقی و خواب ظاهری، رشد رویشی و فرایند تولید بنه­های دختری را تحت تأثیر قرار می­دهد و از این­رو انجام مطالعات علمی در این زمینه ضروری است. در این راستا، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای در قالب طرح  بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 99-1398 در شهرستان قاینات اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش عبارت بودند از: 1- کشت بنه­ها در 15 خرداد­ماه و استقرار در دمای محیط، 2- کشت بنه­ها در 15 خرداد­ماه + مصرف بقایای گیاهی، 3- کشت بنه­ها در 15 خرداد­ماه + انجام آبیاری تابستانه،  4- نگهداری بنه­ها در محیط آزاد (سایه و دمای 30 تا 32 درجة سانتی­گراد) به مدت سه ماه و کشت آن­ها در 15 شهریور، 5- نگهداری بنه­ها در انکوباتور (دمای ثابت 25 درجه سانتی­گراد و محیط تاریک) به مدت سه ماه و کشت آن­ها در 15 شهریورماه، 6- نگهداری بنه­ها در انکوباتور (با دمای متغیر 20، 25 و مجدد 20 درجة سانتی­گراد و به مدت یک ماه در هر دما) و کشت آنها در 15 شهریورماه و 7- نگهداری تلفیقی بنه­ها در محیط آزاد (دو ماه از 15 خرداد تا 15 مرداد) و انکوباتور (یک ماه در دمای 25 درجه سانتی­گراد از 15 مرداد تا 15 شهریور) و کشت آنها در  15 شهریورماه. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل طول، تعداد و وزن برگ، تعداد و وزن کل بنه­های دختری، وزن بنه­ دختری اصلی، متوسط وزن بنه­ و نیز تعداد و عملکرد بنه­های دختری در گروه­های وزنی مختلف بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار کشت گیاه در 15 خرداد همراه با مصرف بقایای گیاهی بیشترین مقادیر طول و تعداد برگ (به ترتیب 35 سانتی­متر و 9 عدد در بنه) را سبب گردید. انکوباسیون بنه­ها در دمای متغیر و سپس کشت آنها در شهریور منجر به افزایش معنی­دار وزن کل بنه­های دختری شد، در حالی که  انکوباسیون در دمای ثابت و کشت در شهریورماه بیشترین اثر را بر تعداد بنه در واحد سطح داشت (2022 عدد در متر مربع). بیشترین و کمترین مقدار متوسط وزن هر بنة دختری به­ترتیب در تیمارهای کشت در خرداد + مصرف بقایای گیاهی (23/7 گرم) و انکوباسیون در دمای ثابت (22/2 گرم) + کشت در شهریور حاصل شد؛ که در مقایسه با متوسط وزن بنه­های مادری کشت شده (15 گرم) کاهش یافت. تیمار کاشت در خرداد + مصرف بقایای گیاهی باعث کاهش تعداد بنه­های ریز با وزن کمتر از 6 گرم و افزایش تعداد بنه­های دختری در گروه­های وزنی 9 تا 12 و 12 تا 15 گرم شد. نگهداری بنه­های مادری در دمای متغیر انکوباتور + کشت در شهریور منجر به افزایش تعداد و عملکرد بنه­های دختری با وزن بیش از 15 گرم شد. در مجموع، تیمارهای کاشت بنه در خرداد همراه با مصرف بقایای گیاهی و نگهداری بنه­های مادری در دمای متغیر انکوباتور و سپس کاشت آنها در شهریور که به­ترتیب 66  و 61 درصد از عملکرد بنه­های دختری تولید شده در آن­ها در گروه­های وزنی بیش از 9 گرم قرار گرفتند، به عنوان تیمارهای برتر از نظر بهبود رشد بنه­های دختری زعفران شناسایی و معرفی شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Growth Response of Saffron Replacement Corms to Storage Conditions of Mother Corms during Summer Dormancy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajjad Moradi Moghaddam 1
  • Hamid-Reza Fallahi 2 3
  • Mohammad. Ali Behdani 3
  • Sohrab Mahmoodi 4

1 Educated Student in the Agroecology, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand; and an Expert in Land Affairs Management of Zirkoh Agricultural Jihad, South Khorasan Province Agricultural Jiha

2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran|Plant and Environmental Stresses Research Group, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.

3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran|Plant and Environmental Stresses Research Group, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran.

4 Associate Professor, Department Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand

چکیده [English]

The storage conditions of saffron mother corms during the summer dormancy period, including natural and pseudo-dormancy stages, can probably affect the vegetative growth and the production of replacement corms (RC), which has not received enough attention in previous scientific studies. This experiment was carried out as a complete randomized block design with seven treatments and three replicates during the 2019 growing season in Qaen, Iran. Experimental treatments were three types of corm storage inside the soil [corm planting on 5th June (A) with natural soil temperature as control, A + summer irrigation on 5th August, and A + mulch application obtained from wheat residues at the rate of 8 ton.ha-1)] and four types of corm storage outside the soil [corm storage at room (ambient temperature) for three months started from 5th June + corm planting on 5th September (B), corm storage in constant temperature (25 oC and relative humidity of ~40 %) in incubator for three months + B, three months corm storage at variable temperature in incubator (one month in 20, 25 and 20 oC) + B and corm storage in room temperature (up to 5th August) and incubator (up to 5th September) + B. The studied traits were the length, number, and weight of leaves, the number and weight of the total RC, the weight of the main RC, the average weight of RCs, and the number and yield of RCs in different weight groups. The results showed that mulch application caused the highest length and number of leaves (35 cm and 9 No per plant, respectively). Incubation of corms at variable temperatures led to a significant increase in the total weight of RC. In contrast,  incubation at constant temperature had most significant effect on the number of RC (2022 corms per m2). The highest and the lowest mean weights of RC were obtained in the mulch application (7.23 g) and incubation at constant temperature (2.22 g), respectively. Plant residue treatment (mulch) decreased the number of small RC (less than 6 g) and increased the number of RC in the weight groups of 9-12 and 12-15 g. Incubation of mother corms at variable temperatures led to an increase in the number and yield of RC weighing more than 15 g. Overall, the treatments of plant residue consumption and storage of mother corms at incubator with variable temperatures, in which 66% and 61% of the RC yield was in groups weighing more than 9 g, respectively, were the best experimental treatments in terms of improving the growth of RC.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm
  • Incubation
  • Organic mulch
  • Planting date
  • Summer irrigation
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