اثرات روش‌های مدیریت علف‌های هرز بر تراکم و زیست‌توده آن‌ها و عملکرد زعفران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم علف‌های هرز، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 عضو هیات علمی ایستگاه تحقیقات زعفران و گیاهان دارویی گناباد، خراسان

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی و مقایسه روش‌های شیمیایی و غیر شیمیایی مدیریت علف‌های هرز مزارع زعفران(Crucus sativus) آزمایش‌های مزرعه‌ای طی سال‌های 1388 تا 1390 در ایستگاه تحقیقات زعفران و گیاهان دارویی شهرستان گناباد به‌صورت طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 6 تیمار و سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارها شامل گیاه پوششی جو (Hordeum vulgare)، مالچ بستر قارچ، علف‌‌کش گالانت سوپر (هالوکسی فوپ-آر- متیل) (EC%10)، علف‌کش شوالیه (مزوسولفوروم + یدوسولفوروم) (WG%6)، وجین دستی و شاهد (عدم کنترل) بودند. به‌منظور تعیین قابلیت کنترل علف‌های هرز وزن خشک علف‌های هرز و نیز وزن خشک برگ، وزن ترگل و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران اندازه‌گیری و مقایسه شد. بررسی وضعیت علف‌های هرز مزرعه نشان‌داد که علف‌های هرز غالب در محل موردمطالعه شامل جو دره (Hordeum murinum)، جو موشی (Hordeum spontaneum)، ازمک (Cardaria draba) و بومادران (Achillea millefolium) بودند. علف‌کش‌ شوالیه تأثیر قابل قبولی در کنترل علف‌های هرز برگ باریک و برگ‌پهن داشته اما به نظر می‌رسد این علف‌کش بر رشد گیاه زعفران نیز اثرات منفی داشته زیرا تراکم گیاه زعفران را در سال بعد در کرت‌های استفاده‌شده کاهش داد. علف‌کش گالانت سوپر علف‌های هرز برگ باریک را به‌خوبی کنترل نمود اما باعث کاهش عملکرد کلاله خشک و زیست‌توده برگ زعفران نیز شد. مالچ استفاده‌شده نتوانست علف‌های هرز را کنترل کند، اما باعث افزایش عملکرد نسبت به تیمار شاهد شد. گیاه پوششی جو تأثیر فراوانی در کاهش زیست‌توده علف‌های هرز برگ باریک و برگ‌پهن داشت. تیمار گیاه پوششی جو کم‌ترین زیست‌توده علف‌های هرز را سبب شده و همانند تیمار وجین دستی در کاهش زیست‌توده علف‌های هرز مؤثر بود. این گیاه پوششی به دلیل کنترل مناسب علف‌های هرز، عدم ایجاد اثرات نامطلوب بر گیاه زعفران و همچنین تولید یک محصول جنبی بر سایر روش‌های مطالعه شده در این تحقیق برتری داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of weed management strategies on weed density and biomass and saffron (Crocus sativus) yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Zare Hosseini 1
  • Reza Ghorbani 2
  • Mohammad Hassan Rashed Mohassel 2
  • Hossein Rahimi 3
1 M.Sc. Weed Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Phd. of Gonabad Agriculture and Natural Resource Center, Khorasan
چکیده [English]

In order to study and compare chemical and non-chemical methods of weed management in saffron (Crocus sativus) fields, two field experiments were carried out in a randomized completely block design with three replications at Research Field Station of Gonabad during 2009 to 2011. Treatments included cover crops of barely, Mushroom bed mulch, herbicides of haloxyfop R methyl ester (EC10%), iodosulfuron methyl sodium+mesosulfuron. methyl + mefenpyr. diethy (WG6%) l, hand weeding (DF75%) and control. For determining the ability of treatments for weed control, dry matter of weed, leaf dry weight of saffron, stigma and saffron flower yields were determined. Results showed that dominant weed species were mouse barely (Hordeum murinum), wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) Hoary cress (Cardaria draba), and yarrow (Achillea millefolium). Herbicides of iodosulfuron methyl sodium + mesosulfuron methyl + mefen pyr. Diethy (WG6%) destroyed grasses and broadleaf, but it destroyed saffron plant too. Haloxyfop. R methyl ester damaged grasses but decreased stigma yield and leaf of saffron. Applied mulch was not be able to control the weeds, however, it increased saffron stigma yield. Cover crops of barley significantly decreased weed dry matter weights. Barley caused least weeds dry matter weight similar to hand weeding. In conclusion, the treatments of cover crops showed the best performances in weed control and saffron yield comparing to other studied weed management methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Barely
  • Cover crop
  • Hand weeding
  • Herbicide
  • Mulch
  • Saffron stigma

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