بررسی ضریب خاموشی، روند جذب و کارایی مصرف نور در زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

در گیاهان زراعی شاخص سطح برگ، ضریب خاموشی و کارایی مصرف نور از مهم‌ترین خصوصیات اکوفیزیولوژیکی محسوب می‌شوند که در ارزیابی میزان نور جذب شده، تولید ماده خشک و عملکرد مؤثرند. در این پژوهش برای تعیین روند تغییرات شاخص سطح برگ، تعیین ضریب خاموشی و کارایی مصرف نور در مزرعه یک‌ساله و دوساله زعفران، آزمایشی در چهار سال زراعی از سال 1390 تا 1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. کشت در دو سال زراعی 1391-1390 و 1392-1391 با استفاده از بنه‌های زعفران با گروه وزنی 15-13 گرم و با تراکم 50 بوته در مترمربع انجام شد.برای تعیین شاخص سطح برگ و وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی زعفران، نمونه‌برداری تخریبی، طی فصل رشد در فواصل زمانی 14 روز یک‌بار انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ زعفران از 33/0 در مزرعه یکساله به 81/1 در مزرعه دوساله، ضریب خاموشی نور در مزرعه یک‌ساله و دوساله به ترتیب از 20/1 به 54/0 کاهش یافت. روند افزایش شاخص سطح برگ در زعفران با کسر تابش جذب شده در هر چهار سال آزمایش هم‌خوانی داشت، به طوری‌که کسر تابش جذب شده با افزایش شاخص سطح برگ به تدریج افزایش یافت و با دریافت میانگین 1083 واحد حرارتی در مزرعه یک‌ساله و 1034 واحد حرارتی در مزرعه دوساله به حداکثر خود رسید. مقدار میانگین دوساله کارایی مصرف نور زعفران نیز در مزارع یک‌ساله و دوساله به ترتیب معادل 68/0 و 73/1 گرم بر مگاژول تابش فعال فتوسنتزی به دست آمد. بر این اساس، با افزایش سن مزرعه و شاخص سطح برگ در زعفران، ضریب خاموشی نورکاهش و به تبع آن میزان جذب و کارایی مصرف نور افزایش می‌یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Extinction Coefficient, Radiation Absorption and Use Efficiency of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyedeh Maliheh Mirhashemi 1
  • Mohammad Bannayan 2
  • Ahmad Nezami 3
  • Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati 3
1 PhD. Student in Crop Ecology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor in Crop Ecology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
3 Professor in Crop Ecology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Leaf area index, light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency are important eco-physiological characteristics for realization of crops growth, development and radiation absorption. In order to determine the leaf area index (LAI), light extinction coefficient (K) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of saffron during the first and second growing seasons, four experiments were started in 2011 and ended in 2014, at the Research Farm of the Agriculture Faculty, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Saffron corms with weights between 13 to15 g and density of 50 plant.m2 were cultivated in 2011 and 2012. In all experimental years during the growing season, crop sampling was taken for required measurements including the leaf area index and shoot dry weight of saffron once every 14 days. The results showed that by increasing the age of saffron from 1 year to two years, the maximum LAI of saffron increased from 0.33 to 1.81, and light extinction coefficient decreased from 1.20 to 0.54. The increasing trend of LAI was coincident with fraction of absorbed radiation for all four years of the experiment. In the first and the second growing seasons, the amount of fraction of absorbed radiation gradually increased with increasing LAI and at 1083 and 1034 GDD reached its maximum value, respectively. In saffron farms when the plant was one year old and two years old, the mean value of RUE was 0.68 and 1.73 g.MJ-1 PAR, respectively. These results indicate that by increasing the saffron age and LAI, the value of K decreases and consequently radiation absorption and use efficiency will‎ increase.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • dry matter
  • Leaf area index
  • Radiation
  • Saffron age

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