بررسی اثر محلول‌پاشی برگی عصاره جلبک دریایی و کود مایع مرغی بر رشد رویشی و عملکرد زعفران ( Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادگروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات و گروه پژوهشی زعفران، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

4 استادیارگروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

10.22048/jsat.2020.219303.1382

چکیده

مدیریت تغذیه یکی از مهم­ترین عوامل مؤثر بر رشد و عملکرد زعفران به شمار می­روند. به منظور بررسی اثر محلول‌پاشی عصاره جلبک دریایی آکادین و کود مایع مرغی بیومیکس، آزمایشی بر رشد رویشی، بنه و عملکرد زعفران انجام شد. این آزمایش درسال‌های 1396 تا 1397 به صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شهرستان فردوس اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل چهار سطح جلبک دریایی آکادین (صفر، 1، 5/1 و 2 کیلوگرم در هزار لیتر آب) و چهار سطح کود مرغی مایع بیومیکس (صفر، 4، 5 و 6 در هزار) بودند. نتایج بیانگر تأثیر معنی‌دار تیمارهای مورد استفاده بر صفات مورد بررسی بود، به‌طوری‌که بیشترین تعداد گل (50/99 عدد گل در مترمربع)، عملکرد تَر گل (34/33 گرم در متر‌مربع)، وزن کلاله خشک زعفران (341/0 گرم در متر‌مربع)، وزن خشک برگ (592/0 گرم در بوته) و طول برگ (75/63 سانتی­متر) در تیمار 2 در هزار عصاره جلبک دریایی بدست آمد. علاوه بر این، نتایج نشان دهنده تأثیر معنی‏دار کود مایع مرغی بر تعداد و عملکرد گل تر (250/94 در مترمربع و 285/32 گرم در مترمربع به‌ترتیب)، طول برگ (66/60 سانتی‌متر‌)، وزن تَر و خشک برگ (74/0 و 46/0 گرم در بوته به‌ترتیب) و وزن کل بنه دختری (02/37 گرم در بوته) بود. همچنین کمترین مقدار صفات ذکر شده نیز از تیمار شاهد مشاهده گردید. اثر متقابل این دو کود نیز بر وزن تَر و خشک برگ و وزن کل و متوسط قطر بنه دختری معنی­دار بود، به‌طوری‌که وزن تَر و خشک برگ (210% و 273% به‌ترتیب) در تیمار 2 کیلوگرم در هزار عصاره جلبک دریایی و 6 در هزار کود مایع مرغی و وزن کل و متوسط قطر بنه دختری (33% و 50% به‌ترتیب) در تیمار 2 کیلوگرم در هزار عصاره جلبک دریایی و صفر در هزار کود مایع مرغی بیشترین افزایش را داشت. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، استفاده از  عصاره جلبک دریایی آکادین (2 در هزار لیتر آب) به تنهایی یا همراه با کود مایع مرغی بیومیکس (6 در هزار) می‌تواند نقش مؤثری در افزایش رشد رویشی، بنه و عملکرد زعفران داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of foliar application of seaweed extract and liquid poultry manure on vegetative growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Behdani 1
  • Mahdi Gerami Sadeghian 2
  • Seyed vahid eslami 3
  • Mohammad Hossein Aminifard 4
1 Professor. Saffron Research Group, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand. Birjand, Iran
2 M.Sc. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand. Birjand, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture University of Birjand.Birjand,Iran.
4 Assistant Professor Department of Horticultural Science, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Birjand,Iran.
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of foliar application of Acadian seaweed extract and Biomix liquid poultry manure on vegetative growth, corm, and yield of saffron. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the city of Ferdows city during the 2017-2018 growing year. Experimental treatments included four levels of Acadian seaweed extract (0, 1, 1.5, and 2 kg. l000 L-1 water) and four levels of liquid Biomix liquid poultry manure (0, 4, 5, and 6 L. l000 L-1 water). The results showed a significant effect of treatments on the studied traits, such as maximum number of flowers (99.50 N. m-2), fresh yield of flowers (33.34 g.m-2), dry weight of saffron stigma (0.341 g. m-2), dry leaf weight (0.592 g plant-1), and leaf length (63.75 cm) obtained in 2 kg. l000 L-1 seaweed extract. Besides, the results showed a significant effect of liquid poultry manure on flower number and yield (94.250 N.m-2 and 32.285 g. m-2, respectively), leaf length (60.66 cm), fresh and dry leaf weight (0.74 and 0.46 g.m-2, respectively), and total weight of replacement corm (37.02 g.m-2). Also, the least amount of the mentioned traits were observed from the control treatment. The interaction between these two fertilizers was also significant in fresh and dry leaf weight and the total and average diameter of replacement corm. Thus, fresh and dry leaf weight (210% and 273%, respectively) were highest in the treatment of 2 kg. l000 L-1 of seaweed extract and 6 L. l000 L-1 of liquid poultry manure. Moreover, total and average diameter of replacement corm (33% and 50%, respectively) were highest in the treatment of 2 kg. l000 L-1 of seaweed extract and no liquid poultry manure. According to the results of this study, the use of Acadian seaweed extract (2 kg. l000L-1 water) alone or in combination with Biomix liquid poultry manure (6 L. l000 L-1 water) can play an important role in enhancing the vegetative growth, corm, and yield of saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Replacement corm
  • Leaf length
  • Organic fertilizer
  • Stigma weight
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