اثر بقایای بنه و عصاره آن بر عملکرد برگ و گل زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)تحت تاثیر سنین مختلف بقایای مزرعه زعفران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد تولیدات گیاهی دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

2 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و گیاهان دارویی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

3 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

10.22048/jsat.2020.156368.1324

چکیده

یکی از مشکلات موجود در کشت زعفران، عدم امکان کشت مجدد آن در یک مزرعه می‌باشد. مطالعه جهت شناسایی علل عدم امکان کشت مجدد زعفران ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. این تحقیق به منظور بررسی اثر سنین مختلف خاک مزرعه زعفران و همچنین کاربرد بنه و عصاره آن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گل و برگ زعفران، بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملاً تصادفی و با سه تکرار در سال‌های زراعی 96-1395و 97-1396 در محیط و شرایط طبیعی واقع در شهرستان تربت‌حیدریه انجام گردید. فاکتور اول سن مزرعه در سه سطح (شامل شاهد یا خاک مزرعه بدون کشت زعفران، خاک مزرعه دوسال پس از خروج بنه و خاک مزرعه تحت کشت زعفران در سال چهارم) و فاکتور دوم کاربرد بنه و عصاره بنه زعفران در سه سطح (شامل عدم مصرف بنه به عنوان شاهد، بنه خرد شده زعفران به میزان 14 تن در هکتار و مصرف عصاره آبی بنه با غلظت 50 درصد) بود. نتایج نشان داد صفات مورد بررسی تحت تأثیر تیمارها قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد کشت مجدد زعفران در مزرعه باعث کاهش معنی‌دار (0.05 ≥p) عملکرد برگ و گل زعفران به ترتیب به‌میزان بیش از 17 و 27 درصد شده‌است. همچنین کاربرد عصاره آبی و بنه خرد شده زعفران باعث کاهش بیش از 10 درصدی اجزای گل و برگ زعفران گردید. بیشترین عملکرد کلاله و برگ در تیمار شاهد (به ترتیب 88/9 و 97/240 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و کمترین آنها در تیمار خاک مزرعه دو سال پس از خروج بنه و مصرف بنه خرد شده (به ترتیب 27/2 و 09/16 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بدست آمد. بنابراین بر اساس نتایج، بقایای بنه زعفران در مزرعه باعث کاهش معنی‌دار رشد و عملکرد برگ و اجزاء گل زعفران می‌گردد که پیشنهاد می‌شود به منظور کشت مجدد زعفران در یک مزرعه، بقایای زعفران کشت شده سال‌های قبل از خاک خارج شده تا اثرات خود آسیبی آن مانع رشد و عملکرد زعفران جدید نشود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of corm residues and its extract on saffron leaf and flower yield under different farm age of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) residual.

نویسندگان [English]

  • moahammad Farhangi 1
  • ahmad ahmadian 2
  • Iman yousefi javan 3
1 M.Sc. Student of Plant Production, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Plant Production Department, and Researcher of Saffron Institute, University of Torbat Heydarieh
3 Assistant Professor of Plant Production Department, and Researcher of Saffron Institute, University of Torbat Heydarieh
چکیده [English]

One of the most serious problems in saffron production is that it is impossible to plant saffron again in a given farm. Therefore, it is essential to identify the reasons for not being able to plant saffron again in a given farm. This research was carried out in order to investigate the effect of residual soil of saffron, different ages of saffron field, its corm and extract on quantitative production of saffron in factorial as completely randomized design with three replications during 2016-2018, in a personal farm under natural conditions in Torbate Heydarieh, Iran. The first factor was soil age at three levels (including field soil without background of saffron cultivation (control treatment), field soil from which corms had been taken out two years ago, and soil under cultivation of saffron in the fourth year) and the second factor was the application of corm and its extract in three levels (including non-consumption of corm as control, crushed saffron corm 14 tons per hectare and consumption of aqueous extract of saffron corm with a concentration of 50 percent). The results showed that most traits were affected by treatments and their interactions. The cultivation of saffron in the field caused a significant reduction in the amount of leaf and flower components and their yield (more than 17 and 27 %, respectively). Also, using aqueous extract and crushed saffron corm reduced more than 10% of flower and leaf components and their yield. The highest stigma and leaf yield were observed in the control treatment (9.88 and 240.97 kg.ha-1, respectively) and the least stigma and leaf yield were observed in field soil two years after the outcrop and using crushed corms (2.27 and 16.09 kg.ha-1, respectively). So, it can be stated that remnants of saffron corm in the field significantly reduce the growth, reproduction, leaf and flower yield and its components and it is recommended that the cultivated saffron residues of the previous year be taken out from the soil for re-cultivation of saffron so that its harmful effects do not reduce the growth and yield of new saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Watery extract
  • Replanting
  • Remains
  • Self-toxicity
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