تعیین ساختار بازارهای هدف زعفران و تحلیل اثرگذاری آن بر صادرات ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استادیار اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج،

3 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد،

4 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج.

10.22048/jsat.2020.217710.1379

چکیده

با توجه به رقابت روزافزون در بازارهای جهانی، نیاز به شناخت جامع بازارهای هدف جهت اتخاذ برنامه­های بازاریابی اهمیت چشمگیری دارد. یکی از مولفه­های اثرگذار در انتخاب استراتژی­های بازاریابی در سطح بین­المللی بررسی ساختار بازار کشورهای واردکننده است. لذا این مطالعه دو هدف اصلی تعیین ساختار بازار کشورهای مهم واردکننده زعفران و سپس بررسی اثر این متغیر بر صادرات زعفران ایران را جهت پیشبرد ادبیات پژوهش در حوزه صادرات زعفران به عنوان یکی از مهم­ترین محصولات صادراتی بخش کشاورزی ایران دنبال کرده است. جهت دستیابی به این اهداف از شاخص هرفیندال-هیرشمن برای محاسبه ساختار بازار و الگوی جاذبه برای تعیین نوع اثرگذاری متغیر بر صادرات ایران در دوره زمانی 2017-2001 استفاده شده است. نتایج ساختار بازار نشان داد که از میان 16 کشور اصلی واردکننده زعفران هیچ کشوری دارای ساختار رقابت کامل نبوده و در همه بازارها درجه­ای از انحصار وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج تغییرات ساختار بازار کشورهای واردکننده زعفران در دو دوره زمانی 2010-2001 و 2017-2011 نشان داد که ساختار بازار 7 کشور آرژانتین، چین، آلمان، ژاپن، اسپانیا، سوئد و امارات متحده عربی انحصاری‌تر شده است و 9 کشور دیگر ساختار رقابتی­تری پیدا کرده­اند. براساس نتایج الگوی جاذبه، متغیر ساختار بازار کشورهای واردکننده اثر معنی­داری بر صادرات زعفران ایران داشته است و رقابتی­تر شدن بازارهای هدف موجب کاهش صادرات زعفران ایران شده است. از این رو، با توجه به رقابتی­تر شدن بازارهای هدف زعفران، پیشنهاد می­شود که صادرکنندگان بر بهبود مولفه­های رقابتی خود در بازارها به ویژه بسته­بندی توجه بیشتری نمایند. به طوری که مطابق با استانداردهای جهانی، باید بسته‌بندی براساس نوع کیفیت محصول انجام شود و اطلاعات کاملی به مشتریان ارائه کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Structure of Saffron Target Markets and Analyzing Its Impact on Iranian Exports

نویسندگان [English]

  • Naser Asiabani 1
  • Hamed Rafiee 2
  • Milad Aminizadeh 3
  • Elham Mehrparvar Hosseini 4
1 MSc. of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Agricultural faculty
2 Assistant Professor of Agricultural Economics, University of Tehran Karaj, agricultural and natural resources campus of University of Tehran, agricultural economics and development faculty
3 PhD Student, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad
4 PhD Student, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Tehran, Karaj
چکیده [English]

Considering increasing competition in global markets, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of target markets for market planning. One of the factors influencing international marketing strategies selection is assessment of the market structure in importing countries. Therefore, this study has pursued two main goals of determining the market structure of important saffron importing countries and investigating the effect of this variable on Iranian saffron to further the research literature on saffron export as one of the most important export products of the Iranian agricultural sector. To achieve these objectives, the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index has been used to calculate the market structure and the gravity model has been applied to determine this variable’s impact on Iran's exports over the period of 2001-2017. Market structure results showed that out of the 16 main countries importing saffron, no country had a fully competitive structure and there was a degree of monopoly in all markets. Also, the results of changes in the market structure of saffron importing countries during the period of 2001-2010 and 2011-2017 showed that the market structure of 7 countries Argentina, China, Germany, Japan, Spain, Sweden and the United Arab Emirates have become more monopolistic and 9 other countries have got more competitive structures. According to the results of the gravity model, the market structure of the importing countries has had a significant effect on Iranian saffron exports and the more competitive target markets have caused reduction of Iranian saffron exports. Hence, as saffron target markets become more competitive, it is suggested that exporters pay more attention to improving their competitive components in the markets, especially packaging. In accordance with world standards, packaging should be based on the quality of the product and provide complete information for customers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • gravity model
  • Herfindahl-Hirschman Index
  • Iran
  • Market Structure
  • Saffron Export
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