اثر محلول‏ پاشی برگی کلات آهن بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی زعفران (Crocus sativus L) در کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه رازی

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه رازی

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه رازی

10.22048/jsat.2021.109636.1275

چکیده

در این پژوهش اثر محلول پاشی کلات آهن بر محتوای نسبی آب برگ، مقدار نشت الکترولیت‏ها، میزان کلروفیل برگ، در این پژوهش اثر محلول‏پاشی برگی کلات آهن بر محتوای نسبی آب برگ، مقدار نشت الکترولیت‏ها، میزان کلروفیل، مقدارکاروتنوئید، مقدار قندهای محلول و میزان پرولین برگ در زعفران بررسی شد. آزمایش بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار و در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه رازی در سال‏های زراعی 93-1392 و 94-1393 انجام و صفات در سال دوم آزمایش بررسی شدند. فاکتورهای آزمایش عبارتند از زمان محلول پاشی شامل سه سطح اوائل رشد رویشی (پس از گلدهی و در آبان ماه)، اواسط رشد رویشی (دی‏ماه) و آخر رشد رویشی (اسفند‏ماه) و غلظت محلول آهن شامل هفت سطح، صفر(شاهد)، 500، 1000، 1500، 2000، 2500 و 3000 قسمت در میلیون بودند. نتایج نشان داد که زمانهای محلول‏پاشی برای میزان کلروفیل a، میزان کلروفیل کل و نشت الکترولیت تفاوت معنی داری ایجاد نکردند. این فاکتور برای مقدار کاروتنوئید معنی‏دار (p≤0.05) شد و اثر بسیار معنی‏داری بر سایر صفات گذاشت(p≤0.01). اثر غلظت محلول آهن و اثر متقابل زمان محلول‏پاشی در غلظت محلول برای تمامی صفات بررسی شده بجز نشت الکترولیت بسیار معنی‏دار شدند (p≤0.01). غلظت آهن و اثر متقابل دو فاکتور مورد بررسی بر نشت الکترولیت در سطح 5 درصد اثر گذاشتند (p≤0.05). بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده محلول پاشی با غلظت 2000 قسمت در میلیون موثرتر از سایر غلظت‎ها بود. این غلظت محلول پاشی برای صفات کلروفیل a ، کلروفیل کل و کاروتنوئید در اواسط رشد رویشی و میزان قند محلول در آخر رشد رویشی به ترتیب موجب افزایش 4/45، 4/42، 6/63 و 5/63 درصد در مقایسه با شاهد گردید. محلول پاشی در اواسط رشد رویشی نسبت به سایر زمانهای مورد بررسی تاثیر بیشتری بر صفات مطالعه شده داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Foliar Iron Chelated Application on some Physiological Traits in Saffron (Crocus sativus L) in Kermanshah

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elnaz Zamani 1
  • Hooman Salari 2
  • Mokhtar Ghobadi 3
1 Agronomy and Plant Breeding Dept, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah- Iran
2 Agronomy and Plant Breeding Dept. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Agronomy and Plant Breeding Dept. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract

We studied the effects of foliar application of iron chelate on relative leaf water content, electrolyte leakage, leaf chlorophyll content, carotenoids content, leaf soluble sugars content and proline for saffron in Kermanshah (Iran). A two-year trial (2013–2015) was conducted in the factorial experiment based on complete randomized design (CRD) in triplicates at the research farm of Razi University; Iran. The traits were studied in the second year of experiment. The foliar iron chelated was applied at the three considered times namely early vegetative (November), mid-vegetative (January), and the end of vegetative growth (March). The seven concentrations of iron chelate were considered i.e. zero (control), 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000 ppm. The results showed that chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and electrolyte leakage were not influenced by the time of foliar application. However, carotenoids have been affected significantly by the time (p≤0.05) and the other traits were affected very significantly (p≤0.01). The concentration of iron solution and the interaction between two factors affected all the traits highly significant (p≤0.01) apart from the electrolyte leakage which was significantly influenced (p≤0.05). The foliar application of iron chelate with the concentration of 2000 ppm leads to increase for chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids in comparison with control for 45.4%, 42.4%, and 63.6% at the mid-vegetative, respectively. Soluble sugar content also has been raised for the foliar application at the end of vegetative growth for 2000 ppm for 63.5% compare with control. Also, generally can be claimed that the foliar application of iron chelate at the mid-vegetative was more effective than others.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • vegetative growth
  • Carotenoids
  • Chlorophyll
  • foliar application
 
Amal, A.M., and Aly, A.A. 2008. Alteration of some secondary metabolites and enzymes activity by using exogenous antioxidant compound in onion plants growth under seawater salt stress. American Eurasian Journal of Science Research 3: 139-146.
Babaeian, M., Heidari, M., and Ghanbari, A. 2010. Effect of water stress and foliar micronutrient application on physiological characteristics and nutrient uptake in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 12 (4) 377-391. (In Persian with English Summary).
Bates, L.S., Waldren, R.P., and Teare, I.D. 1973. Rapid determine of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39: 205-208.
Bozorgi, H.R., Bidarigh, S. Bakhshi, D., Samak Mohammadi, B., Azarpour, E., and Moraditochaee, M. 2012. Effects of marine brown alga extract (Ascophyllum nodosum) under foliar spraying of methanol and iron fertilizers on flower tube length of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in north of Iran. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences 4 (20): 1512-1518.
Chatterjee, C., Gopal, R., and Dub, B.K.  2006. Physiological and biochemical responses of French bean to excess cobalt. Journal of Plant Nutrition 29: 127-136.
Chohura, P., Kolota, E., and Komosa, A. 2007. The effect of different sources of iron on nutritional value of greenhouse tomato fruit grown in peat substrate. Vegetable Crops Research Bull 67: 55-61.
Crowley, D.E., Wang, Y.C.  Reid, C.P.P., and Szaniszlo, P.J. 1991. Mechanisms of iron acquisition from siderophores by microorganisms and plants. p. 213-232. In: Chen, Y. and Y. Hadar (Eds.), Iron Nutrition and Interactions in Plants, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.
Curie, C., and Briat, J.F. 2003. Iron transport and signaling in plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology 54: 183-206.
Ehdaei, B., Alloush, G.A., Madore M.A., and Waines, J.G. 2006. Genotype variation for stem reserves and mobilization in wheat: II. Postanthesis changes in internode water soluble carbohydrates. Crop Science 46: 2093-2103.
Fathi Amir Khiz, K., Amini Dehaghi, M., and Heshmati, S. 2015. Effect of iron chelate on chlorophyll content, quantum efficiency of photocytes and some biochemical traits in safflower under dehydrated conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science 46 (1): 137-145. (In Persian with English Summary).
Gogor Cena, Y., Abadía, J., and Abadía, A. 2004. A new technique for screening iron-efficient genotypes in peach rootstocks elicitation of root ferric chelate reductase by manipulation of external iron concentrations. Journal of Plant Nutrition 27: 1701-1715.
Gohari, F., Bohrani, A., and Bagheri, A. 2010. The effects of macro and micro fertilizers on the water use efficiency in canola. National Conference on Water Management and Drought Stress Management in Agriculture. Azad University of Arsanjan Branch, Arsanjan, Iran. 23-14 February 2011. (In Persian).
Hansch, R., and Mendel, R.R. 2009. Physiological functions of mineral micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, Mo, B, Cl). Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12: 259-266.
Hayat, SH., Hayat, Q., Alyemeni, M.N., Shafi Wani, A., Pichtel, J., and Aqil Ahmad, A. 2012. Role of proline under changing environments. Plant and Behavior 7 (11): 1456-1466.
Hirai, M., Higuchi, K., Sasaki, K., Suzuki, H., Maruyama, T., Yoshiba, T., and Tadano, T. 2007. Contribution of iron associated with high molecular weight substances to the maintenance of the SPAD value of young leaves of barley under iron deficient conditions. Plant and Soil Science 53: 612-620.
Hiron, R.W.P., and Wright, S.T.S. 1993. The abcsisic acid in the response of plant to stress. Journal of Experimental Botany 24: 269-781
Jain, R.C., and Srivastava, R. 2007. Factorial experiments-some variations. I.A.S.A.I. Library Avenue, New Delhi-110012. p. 389-392.
Jiang, Y., and Huang, N. 2001. Drought and heat stress injury to two cool season turf grasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science 41: 436-442.
Kamraki, H., and Galavi, M. 2012. Evaluation of micronutrient spraying of iron, boron and zinc on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of safflower. Journal of Agroecology 4 (3): 201-206. (In Persian with English Summary).
Kangarshahi, S. 2003. The effects of micronutrients on and track performance and yield components of corn. Master's Thesis, University of Tehran. (In Persian with English Summary).
Khoshgophtarmanesh, A., Razizadeh, E., Eshghizadeh, H., Sharifi, H., Savaghebi, G., Afyooni, D., and Adayon Nejad, M. 2012. Comparison of spring wheat varieties in response to iron fertilization in a calcareous soil Journal of Water and Soil Science 55: 99-107. (In Persian with English Summary). Koksal, A.L., Dumanoglu, H.., Tuna Gunes, N., and Aktas, M. 1998. The effect of different amino acid chelate foliar fertilizers on yield, fruit quality, shoot growth and Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn content of leaves in Williams pear cultivar (Pyrus communis L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 23: 651-658.
Lichtenthaler, H., and Wellburn, A.R., 1983. Determination of total carotenoids and chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b leaf extracts in different solvents. Biochemical Society Transactions 603: 591-592.
Malakooti, M.J., and Tehrani, M.M. 2000. The role of micronutrients in increasing yield and improving quality of agricultural products. Tarbiat Modarres University Press. 299p. (In Persian).
Maleki, M., Ebrahimzade, H., Gholami, M., and Niknam, V. 2011. The effect of drought stress and exogenous abscisic acid on growth, protein content and antioxidative enzyme activity in Saffron (Crocus sativus L.). African Journal of Biotechnology 10 (45): 9068-9075.
Mohsenzadeh, S., Malboobi, M.A., Razavi, K., and Farrahi Aschtiani, S. 2006. Physiological and molecular responses of (Aeluropus lagopoides) to water deficit. Environmental and Experimental Botany 56: 322-374.
Odeley, F., and Animashaun, M.O. 2007. Effects of nutrient foliar spray on soybean growth and yield (Glycine max L.) in south west Nigeria. Australian Journal of Crop Science 41: 1842-1850.
Peivandi, M., Jamkani, Z., and Mirza, M. 2011. Effect of iron nano-chelate with iron chelate on growth and antioxidant enzymes activity of Satureja hortensis. Journal of New Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology 2 (5): 25-32. (In Persian with English Summary).
Saeedi Rad, M., and Mokhtarian, A. 2013. Scientific and practical principles of planting and harvesting of saffron. Sarva Publications, Tehran. p. 1-112. (In Persian with English Summary).
Saeidi Aboueshaghi, R., Yadavi, A., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., and Baluchi, H. 2014. Effect of irrigation intervals and foliar application of iron and zinc on some physiological and morphological characteristics of red bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.). Journal of Plant Process and Function 3 (7): 27-42. (In Persian with English Summary).
Safari, H. 2005. Effect of method and amount of optimum use of micronutrient fertilizers containing iron and zinc on quantitative and qualitative yield and rapeseed oil percent. Proceedings of the Scientific and Applied Seminar of Iranian Vegetable Oil Industry. Tehran, p. 356-350. (In Persian).
Sartory, D.P., and Grobbellaar, J.U. 1984. Extractio.n of chlorophyll a from fresh water phytoplant on for spectrophotometric analysis. Tlydoobiologia 144: 177-187.
Shamsi, K. 2010. The effects of drought stress on yield, relative water content, proline, soluble carbohydrates and chlorophyll of bread wheat cultivars. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 8: 1051- 1060.
Shi, Q., Bao, Z., Zhu, Z., Ying, Q., and Qian, Q. 2006. Effect of different treatments of salicylic acid on heat tolerance, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidant enzyme activity in seedling of Cucumis sativa L. Plant Growth Regulation 48: 127-135.
Suh, H., Kim, C.H., Lee, J., and Jung, J. 2002. Photodynamic effect of iron on photosystem II function in pea plants. Photochemistry and Photobiology 75: 513-518.
Theriappan, P., Gupta, A.K., and Dhasarathan, P. 2011. Accumulation of proline under salinity and heavy metal stress in cauliflower seedlings. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 15 (2): 251-255.
Zago, M.P., and Oteiza, P.I. 2001. The antioxidant properties of zinc: Interactions with iron and antioxidants. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 31: 266-274.
Zayed, B.A., Salem, A.K.M., and El-Sharkawy, H.M. 2011. Effect of different micronutrient treatments on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and yield under saline soil conditions. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 7: 179-184.