اثر نسبت های کشت مخلوط ردیفی نخود و زعفران بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات رشدی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر نسبت‌های کشت مخلوط افزایشی نخود با گیاه نقدینه زعفران بر خصوصیات کمی و عملکرد، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با هفت تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در دو سال زراعی 1391-1393 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل 100% زعفران+20% نخود، 100% زعفران+40% نخود، 100% زعفران+60% نخود، 100% زعفران+80% نخود، 100% زعفران+ 100% نخود و کشت خالص دو گیاه بود. صفات مورد مطالعه شامل ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، تعداد دانه در غلاف و وزن صد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیکی و دانه نخود و تعداد گل، وزن تر گل، وزن تر کلاله و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر نسبت‌های کشت مخلوط با زعفران بر ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد غلاف، تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد دانه در بوته، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و عملکرد دانه نخود معنی‌دار بود (05/0p≤). بالاترین عملکرد بیولوژیکی و دانه نخود برای کشت خالص به ترتیب با 3/608 و 9/282 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کمترین مقادیر برای تیمار 100% زعفران+ 100% نخود به ترتیب با 5/122 و 94/55 کیلوگرم در هکتار مشاهده گردید. اثر نسبت‌های کشت مخلوط ردیفی با نخود بر تعداد گل، وزن تر گل، وزن تر کلاله و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود (01/0p≤). بالاترین تعداد گل و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران برای کشت خالص به ترتیب برابر با 89/103 گل در متر مربع و 47/0 گرم کلاله در متر مربع و کمترین مقادیر برای 100% زعفران+ 20% نخود به ترتیب با 94/28 گل در بوته و 14/0 گرم کلاله در متر مربع مشاهده گردید. با افزایش درصد حضور نخود از 20 درصد به 100 درصد در کشت مخلوط افزایشی با زعفران، وزن خشک کلاله به ترتیب 142، 116، 41 و 5 درصد افزایش یافت. بدین ترتیب، با توجه کشت مخلوط زعفران با گیاهان تثبیت‌کننده نیتروژن نظیر نخود را بایستی جهت بهبود عملکرد این گیاه نقدینه به عنوان راهکار جایگزین اکولوژیکی در مدیریت پایدار آن مدنظر قرار داد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Row Intercropping Ratios of Chickpea and Saffron on Their Quantitative Characteristics and Yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghorban Ali Asadi 1
  • Surur Khorramdel 2
  • Mohammad Hasan Hatefi Farajian 3
1 Associate Professor, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Assistant Professor, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 M.Sc. Student in Agroecology, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of additive intercropping series of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on their growth criteria and yield, a field experiment was done based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The treatment included 100% saffron+20%chickpea, 100% saffron+40%chickpea, 100% saffron+60%chickpea, 100% saffron+80%chickpea, 100% saffron+100% chickpea and their monoculture. The trait studied were plant height, yield components, biological yield and seed yield of chickpea and the number of flowers, fresh weight of flowers, fresh weight of stigma and dry weight of stigma for saffron. The results showed that saffron intercropping series had a significant impact on plant height, number of branches, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, biological yield and seed yield of chickpea (p≤0.01). The highest biological yield and seed yield of chickpea were observed in monoculture with 608.3 and 282.9 kg.m-2 and the minimum of these were obtained in 100%saffron+100% chickpea with 122.5 and 55.94 g.m-2, respectively. The number of flowers, fresh weight of flower, fresh weight of stigma and dry weight of stigma for saffron were significantly affected by intercropping with chickpea (p≤0.01). The highest flower number and stigma dry weight of saffron were achieved in monoculture with 103.89 and 0.47 g.m-2 and the lowest of these were obtained in 100%saffron+20% chickpea with 28.94 flowers.m-2 and 0.14 g.m-2, respectively. By increasing the chickpea ratio from 20 to 100% at additive intercropping series with saffron, the dry weight of stigma was increased by 142, 116, 41 and 5%, respectively. Therefore, we may conclude that intercropping of saffron with nitrogen fixation plants such as chickpea seems to be a rational ecological approach for sustainable management of saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nitrogen fixation
  • Additive intercropping
  • Cash crop
  • Stigma weight

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