عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to study the effect of additive intercropping series of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) with saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on their growth criteria and yield, a field experiment was done based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The treatment included 100% saffron+20%chickpea, 100% saffron+40%chickpea, 100% saffron+60%chickpea, 100% saffron+80%chickpea, 100% saffron+100% chickpea and their monoculture. The trait studied were plant height, yield components, biological yield and seed yield of chickpea and the number of flowers, fresh weight of flowers, fresh weight of stigma and dry weight of stigma for saffron. The results showed that saffron intercropping series had a significant impact on plant height, number of branches, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, biological yield and seed yield of chickpea (p≤0.01). The highest biological yield and seed yield of chickpea were observed in monoculture with 608.3 and 282.9 kg.m-2 and the minimum of these were obtained in 100%saffron+100% chickpea with 122.5 and 55.94 g.m-2, respectively. The number of flowers, fresh weight of flower, fresh weight of stigma and dry weight of stigma for saffron were significantly affected by intercropping with chickpea (p≤0.01). The highest flower number and stigma dry weight of saffron were achieved in monoculture with 103.89 and 0.47 g.m-2 and the lowest of these were obtained in 100%saffron+20% chickpea with 28.94 flowers.m-2 and 0.14 g.m-2, respectively. By increasing the chickpea ratio from 20 to 100% at additive intercropping series with saffron, the dry weight of stigma was increased by 142, 116, 41 and 5%, respectively. Therefore, we may conclude that intercropping of saffron with nitrogen fixation plants such as chickpea seems to be a rational ecological approach for sustainable management of saffron.
Abdali Mashhadi, A. 2006. The Study of corn and sunflower intercropping in various rations and planting times. MSc. Dissertation, University of Tehran, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Abdullaev, F. 2006. Biological properties and medicinal use of saffron (Crocus sativus L.).Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology. Mashhad, Iran, 28-30 October 2006, p. 339-345.
Albert, N. 1999. The effect of mixed cropping saffron and pea on saffron yield. Journal of Saffron 2: 73-78.
Banik, P., Midya, A., Sarkar, B.K., and Ghose, S.S. 2006. Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment: Advantages and weed smothering. European Journal of Agronomy 24: 325-332.
Banitaba, A. 2008. Study of saffron and cumin intercropping in Isfahan region. Final Report of Research Project in Islamic Azad University of Golpayegan, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Farhoodi, F., Rahnama, A., and Ismaeilzadeh, H. 2003. Station of saffron in intercropping. The 3rd International Congress of Saffron, December 2 and 3, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Galavi, M., Soloki, M., Mousavi, S.R., and Ziyaie, M. 2008. Effect of planting depth and soil summer temperature control on growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Asian Journal of Plant Science 7: 747-751.
Ghorbani, R., and Koocheki, A. 2006. Organic saffron in Iran: prospects challenges. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Technology. Mashhad, Iran. 28-30 October 2006, pp. 369-374.
Haymes, R., and Lee, H.C. 1999. Competition between autumn and spring planted grain intercrops of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and field bean (Vicia faba). Field Crops Research 62: 167-176.
Kafi, M., Rashed Mohasel, M.H., Koocheki, A., and Mollafilabi, A. 2002. Saffron: Production and Processing. Zaban va Adab Publications, Iran, 276 pp. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khosravi, M. 2005. Intercropping black zira (Bonium persicum) with saffron and annual crops: Agroecological and economic perspectives. Ferdowsi University, Iran, PhD Thesis. (In Persian with English Summary)
Khoze M.A. 2000. Saffron in mixed cropping system. Journal of Saffron 8: 18-244.
Koocheki, A. 2004. Indigenous knowledge in agriculture with particular reference production in Iran. Acta Horticulturae 650: 175-182.
Koocheki, A., Najibnia, S., and Lalehgani B. 2009. Evaluation of saffron yield (Crocus sativus L.) in intercropping with cereals, pulses and medicinal plants. Iranian Journal Field Crops Research 7 (1): 163-172. (In Persian with English Summary)
Koocheki, A., Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., and Azimi, R. 2013. The effect of irrigation intervals and intecropped marjoram (Origanum vulgare) with saffron (Crocus sativus) on possible cooling effect of corms for climate change adaptation. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 11 (3): 390-400. (In Persian with English Summary)
Mahmood, A. 2001. Mix cropping system. http:// www.Agri systems.org.
Mazaheri, D. 1998. Intercropping Agronomy. Publication of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian with English Summary)
Naderi Darbaghshahi, M., Pazoki, A., Banitaba, A., and Jalali Zand, A. 2009. Study of agronomical and economical aspects of saffron and chamomile intercropping in Isfahan region. New Findings in Agriculture 3 (4): 413-422. (In Persian with English Summary)
Pooramir, F., Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Gorbani, R. 2010. Evaluation of yield and yield components on sesame and chickpea in replacement intercropping series. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research 8 (5): 747-757. (In Persian with English Summary)
Rangahau, M.K. 2003. Growing saffron -The world’s most expensive spice. Crop and Food Research 20: 1-4.
Reijntjes, C., Haverkort, B., and Waters-Bayer, A. 1992. Farming for the future, an introduction to lowextrnal- input and sustainable agriculture. Macmillan Education Ltd.
Sengul, S. 2003. Performance of some forage grasses or legumes and their mixtures under dry land condition. European Journal Agronomy 19: 401-409.
Shabani, G.H., Azizi, K.H., Chaichi, M.R., Ghalavand, A., Eshghizadeh, H., and Doraghi, T. 2005. Effects of pore and mixed cropping of annual medic (Medicago scutellata cv. Robinson) with barely on forage yield, seed production and soil seed bank. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi 66: 67-73. (In Persian with English Summary)