اثر محلول پاشی با نیترات پتاسیم و روی بر صفات کمی و کیفی زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحــد اصفهان (اردستان)، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اصفهان (اردستان)، اصفهان، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی اصفهان (واحد اردستان)، اصفهان، ایران.

10.22048/jsat.2019.179188.1342

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف مطالعه تأثیر محلول پاشی کود روی و پتاسیم بر صفات کمی و کیفی زعفران در شهرستان نطنز در روستای بادرود در سال دوم زراعی 1396 به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل سه سطح نیترات پتاسیم (شاهد (K1)، 5 در هزار (K2) و 10 در هزار (K3) و سه سطح روی (شاهد (Z1)، 5 در هزار (Z2) و 10 در هزار (Z3)) بود. صفات مورد بررسی شامل صفات کمی وزن تر و خشک بنه دختری، وزن تر و خشک بنه مادری، عملکرد تر و خشک گل، عملکرد تر و خشک کلاله، صفات کیفی کروسین، پیکروکروسین و سافرانال بود. نتایج نشان داد سطوح کودی K2 و K3 موجب افزایش صفات کمی بویژه در سطح K3 شد. در حالی که محلول­پاشی روی تنها در سطح Z2 باعث افزایش صفات کمی شد و اثر معنی­داری بر صفات کیفی نداشت. کاربرد غلظت کود پتاسیم در سطح سوم (K3) همراه با سطح دوم کود روی (Z2) بیشترین اثر را در افزایش صفات کمی زعفران داشت. شاید بتوان یکی از دلایل اﻓﺰاﯾﺶ ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد ﮔﻞ را ﺑﻪ اﺛﺮات ﻣﺜﺒﺖ پتاسیم و روی ﺑﺮ ﺳﯿﺴﺘﻢ ﻓﺘﻮﺳﻨﺘﺰی ﮔﯿﺎه ﻧﺴﺒﺖ داد. اﻳﻦ اﻓــﺰاﻳﺶ در ﻣﻴﺰان ﻓﺘﻮﺳﻨﺘﺰ و ﻣﺎده ﺳﺎزی ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻮﺑﻪ ﺧﻮد ﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﺰان ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻛﻼﻟﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ داﺷﺘﻪ و ﺑﺎﻋﺚ اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ وزن ﺧﺸﻚ ﻛﻼﻟﻪ می­شود. در اثر محلول پاشی پتاسیم، میزان کروسین و پیکروکروسین از سطح K1 به K3 به ترتیب به میزان 18 و 13 درصد و سافرانال از سطح K1 به K2 و K3 به میزان 30 و 48 درصد افزایش معنی­داری داشت. در مطالعه حاضر، همبستگی مثبت و معنی­داری بین میزان کروسین، پیکروکروسین و سافرانال با خصوصیات کمی در زعفران بود. شاید بتوان گفت که صفات کیفی زعفران تحت اثر صفات کمی و اجزای عملکرد زعفران می­باشد، بنابراین ﮔﻞاﻧﮕﯿﺰی و ﻋﻤﻠﮑﺮد ﮔﻞ زﻋﻔﺮان در ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﮐﯿﻔﯿﺖ آن ﻧﯿﺰ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﯽﺑﺎﺷﺪ.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of micronutrient foliar application on quantitative and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Tabatabaeian 1
  • Saeed Hassanian 2
  • Azam Kadkhodaie 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran
2 MSc student., Ardestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardestan, Iran.
3 Ph.D., Department of Agronomy, Isfahan (Ardestan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was carried out with the aim of studying the effect of zinc and potassium levels as foliar application on quantitative and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativa) in Natanz city (village Badrude) in the second year of agriculture during 2019. The experiment was done as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Elements such as KNO3 at the levels of control (K1), 5 in thousand (K2) and 10 in thousand (K3) and Zn-EDTA at the levels of control (Z1), 5 in thousand (Z2) and 10 in thousand (Z3) were the treatments. The studied traits included quantitative traits of fresh and dry weight of the girl's corm, fresh and dry weight of mother corm, fresh and dry yield of the flower, fresh dry yield of the stigma, qualitative traits of Crocin, picocrocin and safranal. The results showed that K2 and K3 levels increased the quantitative traits, especially at K3 level. While spraying zinc only at the Z2 level quantitative traits increased and it had no significant effect on qualitative traits. The application of potassium fertilizer at the K3 level along with the Z2 had the greatest effect on increasing the quantitative traits of saffron. Perhaps one of the reasons for increasing flower yield can be attributed to the positive effects of potassium and zinc on the photosynthetic system of the plant. This increase in the amount of photosynthesis and metabolism, in turn, affects the amount of stigma production and increases  dry weight of the stigma. As a result of potassium spraying, amount of crocin and picrocrocin increased from K1 to K3 by 18 and 13 %, and safranal increased from K1 to K2 and K3 increased by 30% and 48%, respectively. In the present study, there was a positive and significant correlation between the amount of Crocin, Picrocrocin and Safranal contents with quantitative characteristics in saffron. It can be said that quality traits are influenced by quantitative traits and yield components of saffron. Therefore, flowering and flower yield of saffron is also effective in improving its quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • picocrocin
  • Foliar nutrition
  • Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
  • Safranal
  • Yield of the stigma
  • Crocin
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