اثر انواع مالچ شیمیایی و آلی بر جمعیت علف‏های هرز و خصوصیات رشدی و عملکردی زعفران در منطقه قائنات

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد رشته گیاهان دارویی، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 دانشیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

10.22048/jsat.2021.267233.1417

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی تأثیر انواع مختلف مالچ شیمیایی و آلی بر تراکم و زیست توده علف‌های هرز و برخی خصوصیات زراعی زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه چهار ساله زعفران در شهرستان قاین در سال 1397 تا 1399 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل استفاده از انواع مختلف مالچ برای کنترل علف هرز شامل عدم کنترل، وجین دستی، پلاستیک شفاف و پلاستیک سیاه (به ضخامت 15 تا 20 میکرومتر)، بقایای برگ انگور، کلش گندم، برگ انار، برگ پسته، کلش جو، تفاله موم زنبور عسل و پوشال بنه زعفران (به ضخامت 5 تا 10 سانتیمتر) بود. نتایج نشان داد که کلیه مالچ‌های مورد استفاده به استثنا‌ی پلاستیک شفاف باعث کاهش معنی دار تعداد گونه، تراکم، وزن خشک و تنوع شانون علف هرز نسبت به تیمار عدم وجین شدند. پایین‌ترین وزن خشک علف‌های هرز مربوط به مالچ پلاستیک سیاه (22/52 گرم علف هرز در متر مربع) و کلش گندم (123 گرم علف هرز در متر مربع) بود. رابطه منفی بین وزن (R=-0.79) و تراکم علف هرز (R=-0.68) با عملکرد زعفران وجود داشت. استفاده از کلیه مالچ‏ها‏ی مورد بررسی بجز پلاستیک شفاف باعث افزایش معنی دار عملکرد بنه، گل و کلاله زعفران نسبت به شرایط عدم وجین شدند. تفاله موم زنبور عسل و کلش گندم به ترتیب بالاترین تعداد گل (151 و 135 گل در متر مربع) و عملکرد کلاله (89/4 و 32/4 کیلوگرم در هکتار) را دارا بودند، که به ترتیب باعث افزایش 213 و 177 درصدی عملکرد کلاله نسبت به تیمار عدم وجین شدند. مالچ پلاستیک سیاه، برگ انار و برگ انگور اختلاف معنی داری با تیمار وجین دستی از نظر رشد و عملکرد زعفران نشان ندادند. بطور کلی، نتایج تایید نمود که استفاده از کلیه مالچ‏ها‏ی مورد استفاده به استثنای پلاستیک شفاف منجر به کنترل مناسب علف هرز و بهبود خصوصیات عملکردی زعفران نسبت به عدم وجین شدند و قابل توصیه برای کشاورزان می‏باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of various chemical and organic mulch types on weed frequency, and growth and yield characteristics of saffron in Qaenat region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohre Natavan 1
  • Rooholla Moradi 2
  • Mahdi Naghizadeh 3
  • Nasibeh Pourghasemian 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Medicinal Plants, Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of different chemical and organic mulch types on density and biomass of weed and some agronomical characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Qaen region in during 2018-2019. The experimental treatments were application of various mulch types for weed control (no weed control, hand weeding, transparent polyethylene, black polyethylene, beeswax waste, residues of grape leaf, wheat straw, pomegranate leaf, pistachio leaf, barley straw and saffron corm dunnage). The results showed that all the treatments except transparent polyethylene significantly reduced the number of species, density, dry weight and shannon diversity of weed compared to no weeding treatment. The lowest dry weight of weed was related to black polyethylene (52.22 g m-2) and wheat straw (123 g m-2) mulches. Application of all the mulches except transparent polyethylene caused a significant increase in corm, flowers and stigmas yield of saffron compared to non-weeding conditions. Beeswax waste and wheat straw had the highest number of flowers (151 and 135 flowers m-2) and stigma yield (4.89 and 4.32 kg ha-1), respectively. Black polyethylene, pomegranate leaf and grape leaf did not show a significant difference with hand weeding in terms of growth and yield of saffron. In general, the results confirmed that the application of all the studied mulches with the exception of transparent polyethylene led to appropriate weed control and improving saffron yield characteristics compared to no weed control treatment and are recommended to farmers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allelopathy
  • Beeswax waste
  • Corm
  • polyethylene
  • Shannon variety
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