شاخص‌های تولید بنه‌های استاندارد و سالم زعفران

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشیار گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 استاد گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استادیار پژوهشکده علوم گیاهی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

5 دانشیار گروه گروه زیست فناوری مواد غذایی، مؤسسه پژوهشی علوم و صنایع غذایی، مشهد

10.22048/jsat.2021.233278.1401

چکیده

تولید پایدار زعفران به عنوان یکی از اهداف کلان و راهبردی کشاورزی ایران نیازمند تدوین یک برنامه مشخص و سازماندهی شده است. در طی نیم قرن گذشته توسعه زراعت زعفران در ایران بیش از هر محصول دیگری انجام شده و سطح زیر کشت آن تا 8/37 برابر افزایش یافته است. با این وجود، میانگین عملکرد در واحد سطح از این توسعه تبعیت نکرده و با شیبی منفی در حال کاهش است به نحوی که میانگین تولید از 76/5 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سال 1352 به 62/3 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سال 1397 رسیده است. همچنین برآورده شده که خلاء عملکرد 90-64 درصدی در مزارع ایران وجود دارد. آفات و بیماری­های زعفران مانند کنه زعفران (Rhizoglyphus robini)، پوسیدگی بنه زعفران، پوسیدگی خشک بنه زعفران (Burkholderia gladioli) و بیماری­های ویروسی زعفران نیز از جمله عوامل مؤثر در کاهش کمی و کیفی محصول زعفران در مزارع هستند. از سوی دیگر اختلاط بنه­های آلوده و سالم، بنه­های با کیفیت پایین و انبارداری نامناسب بنه­ها نیز از معضلات تولید این محصول می­باشد. زعفران بوسیله بنه­های دختری خود تکثیر می­شود و افزایش عملکرد زعفران در ارتباط مستقیم با کیفیت بنه مادری است. دستیابی به بنه­های بذری استاندارد و سالم به عنوان تنها ابزار تکثیر گیاه در طبیعت پیش نیاز هر گونه برنامه­ریزی برای افزایش عملکرد زعفران است. این مقاله شاخص­های مورد نیاز جهت دستیابی و گواهی هسته­های اولیه، بنه­های مادری و بنه­های بذری زعفران را در برنامه استاندارد سازی بنه زعفران توصیف می­کند. بدون شک استفاده از بنه­های استاندارد عاری از بیماری در کنار توجه به سایر شاخص­های بوم­شناختی و فیزیولوژیکی گیاه و اجرای مدیریت مناسب موجب افزایش عملکرد و بهبود سنجه­های تولید پایدار خواهد شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Criteria for production of standard pathogen-free saffron corms

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Zakiaghl 1
  • Soroor Khorramdel 2
  • Alireza Koocheki 3
  • Jafar Nabati 4
  • Ahmad Nezami 3
  • Amin mirshamsi kachki 5
  • Abdollah Mollafilabi 5
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 3
  • Mehdi Nassiri Mahallati 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Plant protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Associate Professor, Department on Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor, Department on Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
4 Assistant professor, Research center for plant sciences Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Crop Biotechnology and Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Sustainable development of saffron production as one of the major and strategic goals of Iranian agriculture requires a well-defined and organized plan. Over the past half century saffron cultivation has increased 34-fold in Iran, more than any other crop. But the average yield did not follow this development and is reducing with slight negative slope; so, the average saffron production in Iran has reduced from 5.76 kg/ha in 1973 to 3.42 kg/ha in 2017. It is also estimated that there is a 90-70% yield gap in Iranian saffron farms. Saffron pests and diseases such as saffron mite (Rhizoglyphus robini), saffron corm rot, saffron dry rot (Burkholderia gladioli) and saffron viral diseases are also responsible for quantitative and qualitative reduction of saffron yields in farms. Saffron is propagated by its daughter corms, so increasing the yield of saffron is directly related to the quality of mother corm seed. This paper describes the criteria’s needs to generate and certify prebasic, mother corm and seed corm classes of saffron for standard saffron corm schedule. Production of standard pathogen-free seed corms as the only means of saffron propagation in nature is a prerequisite for any planning to increase saffron yield. Undoubtedly, application of standard free pathogen corms along with other ecological and physiological indices of saffron plant will increase yield and improve Sustainable development indicators.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Saffron production
  • Pathogen-free mother corm
  • Yield
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