بررسی اثرات کود زیستی و نانو ذرات آهن بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی زعفران (Crocus sativus L) در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت دانشگاه بیرجند و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات و عضو هیأت علمی گروه پژوهشی زعفران دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات و عضو هیأت علمی گروه پژوهشی زعفران دانشگاه بیرجند

4 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی و پژوهشگر پژوهشکده زعفران دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

10.22048/jsat.2022.284650.1425

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر سطوح کود زیستی، نانو کود آهن و شوری آب آبیاری بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی زعفران، آزمایشی بصورت فاکتوریل دو عاملی (کود زیستی و نانو ذرات آهن) در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه­ای در شهرستان تربت حیدریه در سال 98-1397 انجام شد و مورد تجزیه مرکب در مکان (شوری) قرار گرفت. عامل کود زیستی در چهار سطح صفر، 500، 1000و 1500 کیلوگرم در هکتار و عامل کود نانو ذرات آهن در دو سطح عدم مصرف و کاربرد چهار لیتر در هکتار بودند که در دو شرایط متفاوت شوری آب آبیاری (29/2 و 49/4 دسی‏زیمنس بر متر) بررسی شدند. کود زیستی (بیوارگانیک گرانول شده) در مرحله سله­شکنی (بعد از اولین آبیاری در اواخر مهر ماه و در زمان گاورو شدن مزرعه) اعمال شد. نتایج نشان داد که صفات وزن گل، تعداد گل، وزن خشک کلاله و وزن کلاله + خامه، در شرایط آبیاری با شوری 29/2 دسی­زیمنس ­بر متر نسبت به شوری 49/4 دسی­زیمنس ­بر متر برتر بودند. همچنین در صفات مذکور، تحت شرایط اعمال آبیاری با شوری 29/2 دسی­زیمنس بر متر، بین سطوح کاربرد و عدم کاربرد نانو کود آهن اختلاف معنی­داری وجود نداشت، اما بررسی برهمکنش شوری و نانو کود آهن نشان داد که در شرایط اعمال آبیاری با شوری 49/4 دسی­زیمنس بر متر، کاربرد نانو کود آهن در مقایسه با عدم کاربرد آن، به ترتیب باعث افزایش معنی­دار 5/35، 33، 8/32 و 1/34 درصدی در صفات وزن گل، تعداد گل، وزن خشک کلاله و وزن کلاله + خامه شد. بررسی مقایسات میانگین اثر متقابل سه گانه نشان داد که در هر دو سطح شوری 29/2 و 49/4 دسی­زیمنس بر متر، در شرایط عدم استفاده از کود زیستی، کاربرد نانو کود آهن توانست بطور معنی­داری میزان کروسین را ارتقا دهد؛ اما در شرایط بکارگیری سطوح مختلف کود زیستی، کاربرد نانو کود آهن، میزان کروسین را بطور معنی­داری کاهش داد. بطوری که در شوری 49/4 دسی­زیمنس بر متر و کاربرد 1000 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود زیستی، کاربرد آهن مقدار کروسین را به 29/2 گرم بر لیتر کاهش داد. بیشترین میزان سافرانال در شرایط اعمال شوری 49/4 دسی­زیمنس بر متر و در تیمارهای کاربرد 500 و 1500 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود زیستی و کاربرد نانو کود آهن و همچنین عدم کاربرد کودهای زیستی و نانو آهن مشاهده شد. آبیاری با شوری 49/4 دسی­زیمنس بر متر در سطوح کود زیستی (به جزء تیمار 500 کیلوگرم در هکتار) سبب افزایش معنی­دار میزان پیکروکروسین گردید و در این سطح شوری، کاربرد 1000 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود زیستی، میزان پیکروکروسین را به 53/2 گرم بر لیتر افزایش داد. در مجموع به نظر می­رسد که جهت حصول عملکردهای بالاتر، آبیاری بوسیلۀ آب­های با شوری کمتر و در صورت آبیاری بوسیلۀ آب­های شور، استفاده از کود آهن جهت تعدیل اثرات شوری قابل توصیه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of bio fertilizer and nanoparticles of Fe on quantitative and qualitative properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under salinity stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alijan Salariyan 1
  • Sohrab Mahmoodi 2
  • Mohammad. Ali Behdani 3
  • hamed kaveh 4
1 Ph.D. Student in Agronomy, University of Birjand and Researcher of Saffron Research Institute, University of Torbat Heydariye
2 Associate Professor, Dept. of Agronomy & Plant Breeding and Faculty Member of Saffron Research Group, University of Birjand
3 Professor, Dept. of Agronomy & Plant Breeding and Faculty Member of Saffron Research Group, University of Birjand
4 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Plant Production, and Researcher of Saffron Research Institute, University of Torbat Heydariye
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of salinity levels, bio fertilizer and nano fertilizer of Fe on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of saffron, a factorial experiment was conducted as a combined analysis in location by a randomized complete block design with three replications. Bio fertilizer was applied at four levels of zero, 500, 1000 and 1500 kg ha-1 and nanoparticles of Fe was applied at two levels of non-consumption and application of four liters per hectare. These factors were investigated in two locations with different irrigation salinity (2.29 and 4.49 dS m-1). The results showed that there were the highest values for traits of weight of flower, number of flowers, dry weight of stigma and weight of stigma + style in irrigation conditions with a salinity of 2.29 dS m-1. In the mentioned traits, under the conditions of irrigation with salinity of 2.29 dS m-1, there was no significant difference between the application and non-application levels of nano fertilizer of Fe; However, in the conditions of irrigation with salinity of 4.49 dS m-1, the application of nano fertilizer of Fe compared to non-application, caused a significant increase of 35.5, 33, 32.8 and 34.1% of these traits, respectively. Comparison of mean for triple interaction showed that at both salinity levels of 2.29 and 4.49 dS m-1, in the absence of bio fertilizer, the application of nano fertilizer of Fe could significantly increase the amount of crocin. However, in the application of different levels of bio fertilizer, the application of nano fertilizer of Fe reduced significantly the amount of crocin. The highest amount of safranal was observed in salinity of 4.49 dS m-1 and in the treatments of application of 500 and 1500 kg per hectare of bio fertilizer and application of nano fertilizer of Fe as well as non-application of bio fertilizers and nanoparticles of Fe. Irrigation with salinity of 4.49 dS m-1 in bio fertilizer levels (except for 500 kg ha-1) caused a significant increase in picrocrocin. In generally, it seems that for achieving higher yields, irrigation with less saline water and in case of irrigation with water by more than salinity of 4.2 dS m-1, the use of nano fertilizer of Fe to moderate the effects of salinity is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crocin
  • Flower weight
  • Picrocrocin
  • Saffron
  • Safranal
 
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