تاثیر کودهای مرغی و شیمیایی بر برخی ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک و عملکرد گل و بنه-های دختری زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) تحت رژیم‌های آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشگاه شاهد، تهران.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه شاهد. تهران

3 دانشیار گروه خاک شناسی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی،دانشگاه شاهد. تهران.

10.22048/jsat.2022.300362.1436

چکیده

یکی از آثار سوء تنش رطوبتی بر گیاهان زراعی، کاهش جذب عناصر غذایی توسط ریشه و کاهش رشد و عملکرد است. لذا به منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای آلی و معدنی بر برخی ویژگی‌های مورفولوژیک و عملکرد زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) تحت رژیم‌های مختلف آبیاری، این آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت‌پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی (RCBD) با سه تکرار اجرا شد. آبیاری به عنوان کرت اصلی در سه سطح (تامین 100%، 66% و 33% ظرفیت مزرعه) و تغذیه به عنوان کرت فرعی در شش سطح (شاهد (بدون مصرف کود)، مصرف 100% کود معدنی توصیه شده، مصرف 100% کود آلی توصیه شده، مصرف 25% کود معدنی + 75% کود آلی توصیه شده، مصرف 50% کود معدنی + 50% کود آلی توصیه شده و مصرف 75% کود معدنی + 25% کود آلی توصیه شده) به کار برده شدند. نتایج نشان داد اثر اصلی آبیاری و تغذیه بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه معنی‌دار بود. همچنین اثر متقابل آبیاری و تغذیه بر تمامی صفات بجز قطر بنه دختری معنی‌دار بود. مقایسه میانگین مرکب اثر متقابل آبیاری و تغذیه نشان داد در هر یک از سطوح آبیاری بیشترین عملکرد بنه‌های دختری در تیمار مصرف 25% کود معدنی + 75% کود آلی و کمترین آن در تیمار شاهد به دست آمد و با افزایش شدت تنش رطوبتی تاثیر این تیمار در افزایش عملکرد بنه‌های دختری بیشتر شد؛ به طوری که در سطح اول آبیاری این افزایش نسبت به شاهد 7%، در سطح دوم 14% و در سطح سوم 33% بود. همچنین در هر یک از سطوح آبیاری بیشترین عملکرد کلاله و خامه در تیمار مصرف 25% کود معدنی + 75% کود آلی و کمترین آن در تیمار شاهد به دست آمد. با افزایش شدت تنش رطوبتی تاثیر این تیمار در افزایش عملکرد کلاله و خامه نسبت به تیمار شاهد بیشتر شد؛ به طوری که در سطح اول آبیاری این تیمار توانست نسبت به تیمار شاهد، 64%، در سطح دوم 77% و در سطح سوم 103% عملکرد را افزایش دهد. این نتیجه بیانگر تاثیر معنی‌دار کودهای مورد استفاده در افزایش تحمل گیاه به خشکی و حفظ پتانسیل تولید در این شرایط است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Chicken Manure and Chemical Fertilizers on Some Morphological Characteristics and Flowers Production and Replacement Corm of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) under Irrigation Regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roohollah Saeidi Aboueshaghi 1
  • Heshmat omidi 2
  • Amir bostani 3
1 PhD. Student in crop physiology, Shahed University, Tehran.
2 Associate Professor,Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture Science, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor,Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture Science, Shahed University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of chicken manure and chemical fertilizers on some morphological characteristics and yield flowers and replacement corms of saffron under irrigation regimes, a split plot experiment on the basis of complete randomized block design was conducted at the shahrekord and two consecutive crop years (2018-2019 and 2019-2020) with three replications. Irrigation as main plot at three levels (Fc (0% moisture depletion), %33 moisture depletion and %66 moisture depletion) and nutrition as sub-plot at six levels (control (without fertilizer application), 100% recommended chemical fertilizer, 100% recommended chicken manure, 25% chemical fertilizer + 75% chicken manure, 50% chemical fertilizer + 50% chicken manure and 75% chemical fertilizer + 25% chicken manure) were used. Chicken manure at a rate of 3 tons per hectare and chemical fertilizers including: urea 100 kg, potassium sulfate 150 kg, triple superphosphate 50 kg, iron sulfate 45 kg, zinc sulfate 15 kg and manganese sulfate 20 kg, all per hectare based on soil decomposition and the plant needs, were used. Also, the morphological traits and production of flowers and replacement corms was evaluated. The results showed that the interaction effect of year × irrigation × nutrition on all studied traits except leaf number, leaf length and replacement corm diameter was significant at 1% level. The mean comparison compound of the interaction of year × irrigation × nutrition showed that the highest dry yield of stigma and style in the second year, under %33 moisture depletion and 75% chicken manure + 25% chemical fertilizer treatment at the rate of 9.21 kg /ha and the lowest amount In the first year, %66 moisture depletion and control was obtained at the rate of 3.3 kg / ha. With increasing water stress intensity, the effect of 75% chicken manure + 25% chemical fertilizers treatment on the yield of replacement corm increased compared to the control and the effect of this treatment in the second year was more compared to the first year, so that in the first year and field capacity (%0 moisture depletion), increasing yield of replacement corm in this treatment compared to the control was 3.2%, in %33 moisture depletion 11.8% and in %66 moisture depletion, 26.7% , and in the second years, was respectively 11.2%, 15.5% and 38.9%. Therefore, this treatment had the highest effect on increasing the yield of saffron stigma and style in all irrigation regimes in this experiment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • nutrition
  • Replacement corm
  • Stigma
  • water stress
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