بررسی تاثیر سطوح مختلف کمپوست زباله شهری و وزن بنه مادری بر عملکرد و خصوصیات رشدی زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، رشته علوم باغبانی، گرایش فیزیولوژی گیاهان دارویی، ادویه ای و عطری، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند

2 استادیار گروه علوم باغبانی و مرکز پژوهشی گیاهان ویژه منطقه دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

3 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک و مرکز پژوهشی گیاهان ویژه منطقه دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

چکیده

مدیریت تغذیه و اندازه بنه مادری، از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر بر رشد و عملکرد زعفران به شمار می‌روند. به منظور بررسی اثر کمپوست زباله شهری و وزن‌ بنه مادری بر شاخص‌های عملکرد گل و ویژگی‌های رشدی بنه زعفران، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه بیرجند، در سال زراعی 94-1393 اجرا شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 4 سطح کمپوست زباله شهری (0، 5، 10 و 20 تن در هکتار) و 3 سطح وزن بنه مادری (شامل گروه‌های وزنی 4-1/0، 8-1/4 و 12-1/8 گرم) و در 3 تکرار اجرا گردید. صفاتی نظیر تعداد و عملکرد گل تر، طول و وزن کلاله، وزن بنه، تعداد بنه دختری و تعداد جوانه در بنه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که کمپوست زباله شهری بر وزن بنه همراه با فلس، تعداد بنه دختری و عملکرد گل تر و کلاله تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت، بطوریکه بالاترین وزن بنه همراه بافلس و تعداد بنه دختری (به ترتیب، 33/21 گرم در بنه و 11/2 عدد) از تیمار 10 تن در هکتار و پایین‌ترین آنها (47/16 گرم در بنه و 66/1 عدد) در شاهد به دست آمد. وزن بنه‌های مادری نیز، عملکرد گل وکلاله، وزن بنه و قطر بنه دختری را تحت تأثیر معنی دار خود قرار داد، بطوریکه بالاترین وزن تازه و خشک کلاله (به ترتیب، 31/0 و 11/0 گرم در متر مربع) از بنه‌های 12-1/8 گرم و کمترین آن‌ها (06/0 و 03/0 گرم در متر مربع) از بنه‌های 4-1/0 گرم بدست آمد. همچنین، اثر بر‌همکنش وزن بنه و کمپوست زباله شهری بر عملکرد گل و کلاله زعفران معنی‌دار گردید، بطوریکه بیش‌ترین عملکرد گل و کلاله تر (به ترتیب 36/9 و 41/0 گرم در متر مربع) از تیمار 10 تن در هکتار کمپوست و بنه‌های 12-1/8 گرم بدست آمد. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، استفاده از کمپوست زباله شهری (10 تن در هکتار) و بنه‌های مادری درشت (12-1/8 گرم) به عنوان مؤثرترین تیمارها در این آزمایش، می‏توانند نقش مؤثری در افزایش رشد بنه و عملکرد گل زعفران داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of different levels of municipal waste compost and maternal corm weight on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohre Gholizade 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Aminifard 2
  • Mohammad Hassan Sayyari 3
1 Masters Student Horticultural Science (Medicnal plants), College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Special Plants Regional Research centre, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of soil Sciences and Special Plants Regional Research centre, College of Agriculture, University of Birjand, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of different municipal waste compost levels of and maternal corm weights on yield and vegetative characteristics of saffron, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, University of Birjand during the growing season of 2014-2015. The treatments were four levels of municipal waste compost (0, 5, 10 and 20 t.ha-1) and three mother corm weights (0.1- 4, 4.1- 8 and 8.1- 12 g). The traits included the number of flower, fresh weight of flower, stigma and fresh weight of corm with scale, weight and diameter replacement and number of buds. The results showed that the effect of municipal waste compost was significant on total weight corm with scale, diameter of center corm and replacement corm, weight of fresh flower and stigma. The highest corm weight and number of replacement corms were obtained for treatment 10 t. ha-1 compost (21.33 g. plant -1 and 2.33 number, respectively), while the control had the lowest values (with 16.4 g. plant -1 and 1.66 number). The effect of mother corm weight was significant on the vegetative characteristics of saffron. The highest corm weight with scale, diameter of replacement, flower yield and fresh weight of flower and stigma were observed for 8.1-12 g. The most fresh  and dry weight of stigma (0.31 and 0.11 g. m -1, respectively) were observed from treatment  mother corm weight 8.1-12 g, while the lowest values (0.06 and 0.03 g. m -1) were 0.1- 4g.  Interaction between municipal waste compost and corm weight had a significant effect on the weight of fresh flower, sepal, stigma and the number of lateral buds and the highest fresh weight of flower (9.36 g. m-2) and stigma (0.41 g. m-2) were observed for treatment 10 t. ha-1 and 8.1-12g. Generally, the findings of the current study revealed that the use of municipal waste compost (10 t. ha-1) and large mother corms (8/1-12 g) had positive effects on corm growth and flower yield of saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Replacements corm
  • nutrition
  • Fresh stigma
  • Organic manure

 

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