اثرات کاشت گیاهان پوششی بر جمعیت علف های هرز، خصوصیات زراعی و عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران(.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگرواکولوژی،دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی، مشهد

2 استاد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور ارزیابی عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران و نیز جمعیت علف‌های هرز در مزرعه زعفران تحت تأثیر برخی گیاهان پوششی، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال زراعی 93-1392 در سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل شش گونه گیاه پوششی جو، شبدر ایرانی، شنبلیله، خلر، کلزا و منداب و تیمار شاهد بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس حاکی از اثر مثبت و معنی‌دار گیاهان پوششی بر تمامی شاخص‌های موردمطالعه بود. بیشترین تعداد گل در واحد سطح (23 عدد در متر مربع)، وزن تر گل (88/61 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و وزن خشک کلاله (990/0 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در شرایط کشت گیاه پوششی کلزا مشاهده شد و در ارتباط با وزن خشک کلاله زعفران، تیمار شاهد 41 درصد در مقایسه با کشت انواع گیاهان پوششی برتری داشت. علاوه بر این، حداکثر وزن کل بنه‌های دختری و وزن بنه‌های دختری بدون فلس در هر کلون در شرایط عدم کشت گیاه پوششی و پس از آن در شرایط کشت گیاه کلزا مشاهده شد. کشت گیاهان پوششی نیز به‌طور متوسط 17 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد در خصوص تعداد بنه‌های دختری در هر کلون برتری نشان داد. با این وجود کمترین مقدار تمامی خصوصیات کمی گل و بنه زعفران در شرایط کشت جو بدست آمد. نتایج بیانگر آن بود که اگرچه در بین تیمارهای گیاه پوششی، حداکثر مقدار تمامی ویژگی‌های مربوط به گل و بنه زعفران به ترتیب متعلق به خانواده شب بو، بقولات و گندمیان بود، اما کمترین تعداد علف‌های هرز به ترتیب به خانواده‌های گندمیان، شب بو، بقولات و در نهایت تیمار شاهد اختصاص یافت. بنابراین، نتایج حاکی از عدم برتری کشت گیاهان پوششی بجز گیاه پوششی کلزا در مقایسه با شاهد در خصوص بهبود شاخص‌های گل و بنه زعفران بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of cover crops on weeds density, agronomic characteristics, flower and corm yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahsa aghhavani shajari 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Reza Ghorbani 2
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
1 Phd student of Ferdowsi University
2 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

This experiment was conducted in order to study the effect of cover crops on weeds population, flower and corm yield of saffron. The experiment was carried out based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at the Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013-14. The treatments included six cover crops: barely (Hordeum vulgare), persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum), fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum – Graecum L.), grass pea (Lathyrus sativus), rapeseed (Brassica napus) and arugula (Eruca sativa) and control. The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of cover crops was significant on all of the studied properties. The maximum flower number (23.m-2), flower fresh weight (61.88 kg.ha-1) and stigma dry weight (0.990 kg.ha-1) were observed in the planting of rapeseed. The stigma dry weight at the control treatment was 41% more than planting a different kind of cover crops. Furthermore, the highest total weight of replacement corms and replacement corms weight without tunic per clone were obtained at the control and then planting of rapeseed as a cover crop. The number of replacement corms per clone among cover crop treatments was about 17% more than that of control. However, the lowest amount of all parameters of flower and corm of saffron were obtained for arugula, Fabaceae species and barely cover crop treatments. Meanwhile, the minimum amount of weed density was observed for barely, arugula, Fabaceae species cover crops treatments and control. Therefore, the results indicated that control and rapeseed as a cover crop treatments had better effects on the flower and corm parameters of saffron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • flower number
  • Saffron
  • Stigma
  • Rapeseed
  • Total weight of corm

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