پژوهش‌های زراعی زعفران در ایران: روند گذشته و نگاهی به آینده

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

 زعفران از جنبه‌های مختلف اقتصادی، اجتماعی، زیست محیطی و سیاسی جایگاه ویژه‌ای در کشاورزی ایران و بخصوص مناطق زعفران‌کاری دارا می‌باشد. نقش کشاورزان ایران در اهلی‌سازی و تکامل زراعی این گیاه در منابع متعدد علمی بین‌المللی به‌صورت بارزی آورده شده است. گرچه نام این محصول مینیاتوری و به‌ اصطلاح دست‌ساز همیشه با نام ایران همراه بوده است ولی به‌نظر نمی‌رسد تلاش‌های علمی پژوهشگران ما در گذشته در خور این گیاه پرآوازه بوده باشد و مسلماً انتظار جهانیان از پژوهشگران ایرانی در زمینه زعفران خیلی بیش از آن است که امروزه برآورده شده است. در این نوشتار سعی شده است با نگاهی به پژوهش‌های زراعی زعفران در گذشته در سطح کشور، وضع موجود و دورنمای آینده آن نیز ترسیم شود. اگرچه پژوهش‌های زراعی اولیه در مورد زعفران در کشور از سابقه‌ای 70 ساله برخوردار است ولی طی یک دوره 40 ساله فعالیت علمی خاصی در این زمینه صورت نگرفت و فعالیت‌های پژوهشی منسجم عملاً از دهه 50 توسط برخی پژوهشگران پیشگام در خراسان آغاز شد. در دهه‌های 50 و 60 با پیدایش سازمان‌هایی همچون سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی (واحد خراسان) و شروع گسترش دوره‌های تحصیلات تکمیلی در دانشکده‌های کشاورزی پژوهش‌های زراعی زعفران در دهه‌های 50 و 60 نسبتاً گسترش یافت و این موضوع بخصوص در دهه‌های 70 و 80 سرعت بیشتری به‌ خود گرفت. در اوایل دهه 80 با تاسیس قطب علمی گیاهان زراعی ویژه در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد و در اواخر دهه 80 با تاسیس گروه پژوهشی زعفران در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند و همچنین تأسیس کانون ارتباط با دانش زعفران در همان دانشگاه، فعالیت‌های پژوهشی تداوم یافت. در اوایل دهه 90 تاسیس پژوهشکده زعفران در دانشگاه تربت حیدریه و تلاش در جهت انتشار دو نشریه تخصصی زعفران توسط دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند و پژوهشکده زعفران و گسترش قابل ملاحظه دوره‌های تحصیلات تکمیلی در دانشگاه‌ها و نیز توجه بیشتر به این محصول سرعت پژوهش‌های مربوط بیشتر شد. تأسیس دبیرخانه دائمی جشنواره زعفران در قائن، تشکیل شورای ملی زعفران در اتاق بازرگانی صنایع و معادن مشهد، تدوین طرح جامع بهبود و فرآوری زعفران، برگزاری کنگره و همایش‌های ملی، برگزاری دومین سمپوزیوم بین‌المللی زعفران در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد نمونه‌هایی از توجه بیشتر به زعفران در سطح ملّی است که بدون تردید می‌تواند عامل مهمی در گسترش پژوهش‌های علمی روی این محصول باشد. امید است چنین رویه‌هایی زمینه‌های لازم را برای نوعی جنبش علمی در مورد زعفران فراهم ساخته باشد و انتظار می‌رود این جنبش علمی به‌صورتی منسجم و جامع، مبانی پژوهش‌های رایج را مورد تجدید نظر قرار داده و به‌علاوه جنبه‌های نوینی از تولید زعفران از جمله تولید در محیط‌های تحت کنترل، ارزیابی خلأ عملکرد، مدلسازی رشد و نمو، جنبه‌های فیزیولوژی و اکولوژی زراعی، نقش تغییرات اقلیم و گرمایش جهانی در گسترش سطح کشت و جابجایی عرصه‌های تولید آن در قالب پروژه‌های کلان بررسی نماید. بدون تردید انتقال یافته‌های علمی به عرصه‌های تولید و عرضه نتایج پژوهش‌ها درقالب نوشتارهای استاندارد بین‌المللی به جامعه علمی جهانی می‌تواند دستاورد عملی چنین جنبشی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Research on production of Saffron in Iran: Past trend and future prospects

نویسنده [English]

  • Alireza Koocheki
چکیده [English]

Saffron has strong ties with the economic, social, environmental and political aspects of agriculture in the country with particular impact on the local communities of the growing area. The role of Iranian farmers in domestication and cultural development of saffron has been clearly demonstrated in the international literature. However, the past scientific achievement of the Iranian scientists on the agronomic attributes of saffron seems to be insufficient with regards to the importance of this crop and the expectation of international scientific bodies. In this review an attempt has been made to look at the past agronomic research status and find a trend for the present and a prospect for the future. On this bases although the history of conventional research in Iran on saffron goes back to seven decades ago a dormant period of almost 40 years up to the 1960s is evidenced. Basically in the 60s the pioneer researchers from Khorasan founded the conventional research on basic agronomic aspects and in the later stages with establishment of organization such as Organization for Scientific and Industrial Research (Khorasan branch) and expansion of graduate studies in the universities, research activities was progressed. These activities gained a momentum in the last two decades particularly in recent years due to establishment of different public and private organizations associated with saffron such as National Saffron Council, permanent secretariat for saffron festival, organizing various seminars and conferences, establishment of research group for saffron in a University, establishment of saffron focal point for science and industry, establishment of saffron institute and publication of two specialized scientific Journal on saffron. Based on these achievements it is hoped to enhance the conventional research topics and shift them towards a holistic and comprehensive approaches for novel research on the subjects such as production under controlled environment, evaluation of yield gaps, growth and development modeling, crop physiology and ecology and impacts of climate change on saffron expansion area etc. This could be fulfilled by transferring the findings to the fields and presenting the results to the world scientific societies by publishing in international Journals.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agronomic
  • Iran
  • Research
  • Saffron
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