تأثیر وزن بنه مادری و سطوح مختلف کود گاوی بر عملکرد بنه و گل زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه زراعت دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

4 استادیار گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

 به‌منظور مقایسه وزن‌های مختلف بنه مادری کشت شده و تعیین سطوح مناسب کود گاوی بر عملکرد گیاه زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی طی 2 سال زراعی 1391-1390 و 1392-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 4 سطح وزن بنه مادری (شامل گروه‌های وزنی 3 – 1/1، 5 – 1/3، 7 – 1/5 و 9- 1/7 گرم) و 4 سطح کود گاوی (0، 20، 40 و 60 تن در هکتار) و در 3 تکرار اجرا گردید. نتایج تجزیه واریانس شاخص‌های عملکرد بنه زعفران نشان داد که این شاخص‌ها به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تاثیر وزن بنه مادری و کود گاوی قرار گرفت. همچنین اثر متقابل وزن بنه مادری در سطوح مختلف کود گاوی نیز بر شاخص‌های ذکر شده معنیدار بود. در بین تیمارهای آزمایش، استفاده از بنه مادری با گروه وزنی 9-1/7 گرم با میزان مصرف 60 تن در هکتار کود گاوی، بیشترین تعداد کل بنه در واحد سطح (510 بنه در متر مربع) و بیشترین عملکرد بنه (1044 گرم در متر مربع) را نشان داد. به‌نظر می‌رسد بنه‌های با وزن بیشتر در سال اول کشت، تعداد بنه‌های بیشتری (در هر 4 گروه وزنی) تولید کرده اما بنه‌های با وزن کمتر توانایی تولید بنه‌های با وزن بیشتر از وزن بنه مادری، بیشتری دارند. شاخص‌های عملکرد گل زعفران در سال اول نشان داد که با افزایش وزن بنه‌های کشت شده، عملکرد گل در سال اول کشت افزایش ‌یافت. نتایج تجزیه واریانس تعداد گل و عملکرد تر و خشک گل و کلاله زعفران در سال دوم حاکی از پاسخ معنی‌دار این شاخص‌ها در واکنش به وزن بنه مادری، کود گاوی و اثر متقابل وزن بنه مادری در سطوح مختلف مصرف کود گاوی بود، به‌طوریکه با افزایش وزن بنه مادری و افزایش سطوح مصرف کود گاوی مقادیر این شاخص‌ها افزایش یافت. به نظر می‌رسد تولید بنه‌های با وزن بیشتر در سال اول کشت زعفران و بهدنبال آن افزایش عملکرد گل، نیازمند بنه‌های مادری درشت و مصرف کود گاوی در سطوح بیشتر باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of maternal corm weight and different levels of cow manure on corm and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • fatemeh Hassanzadeh Aval 1
  • Parviz Rezvani moghaddam 2
  • Mohammad Bannayan aval 3
  • Reza Khorasani 4
1 Ph.D Student, Professor, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor of faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Associate professor of faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
4 Assistant professor of faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of different maternal corm weight and different levels of cow manure on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) production, an experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during 2011- 2012 and 2012- 2013 growing seasons. For this purpose a factorial experiment was used based on complete randomized block design with three replications and 16 treatments. The experimental treatments were done at 4 levels of maternal corm weight (1.1- 3, 3.1- 5, 5.1- 7 and 7.1- 9 g) and 4 levels of cow manure (0, 20, 40 and 60 t.ha-1). Variance analysis results for studied characteristics of saffron corm showed that maternal corm weight, cow manure and maternal corm weight × cow manure had significant effects on these characteristics. Among the experimental treatments, maternal corm with 7.1- 9 g weight and the use rate of 60 t.ha-1 of cow manure treatment had both the highest total corm number (510 corm.m-2) and corm yield (1044 g.m-2). It seems that the corms with higher weight in the first year produce larger number of replacement corm than the corms with lower weight. The saffron flower yield characteristics showed that flower yield in the first year increased by increasing the maternal corm weight. The results of variance analysis of the number of flowers and fresh and dry yield of flower and stigma of saffron in the second year showed that the maternal corm weight, cow manure and maternal corm weight × cow manure had significant effects on them. These characteristics increased by increasing the maternal corm weight and levels of cow manure. It seems that producing replacement corm with high weight in the first year, requires large amount of maternal corm and high levels of cow manure usage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corm size
  • Manure
  • Replacement corm
  • Stigma yield
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