اثرات تاریخ و مقادیر کاربرد کاه و کلش گندم برخصوصیات بنه های دختری و گل‌انگیزی زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) در سال دوم

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد قطب علمی گیاهان ویژه، گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی

3 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تاثیر زمان پخش و مقادیر کاربرد کاه و کلش گندم بر شاخص‌های مربوط به عملکرد بنه‌های دختری زعفران در سال دوم، آزمایشی در دو سال زراعی 90-1389 و 1391-1390 بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 15 تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش بر اساس پنج سطح کاربرد مالچ کلش گندم (شاهد (عدم پخش مالچ)، 2، 4، 6 و 8 تن در هکتار) در سه زمان (خرداد، مرداد و مهرماه) به‌صورت پخش سطحی طراحی شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس در آزمایش حاکی از تاثیر معنی‌دار زمان پخش مالچ کلش گندم، مقادیر کاربرد مالچ و نیز اثر متقابل آن‌ها بر تمامی شاخص‌های کمی گل زعفران بود. بر اساس نتایج آزمایش، پخش مالچ کلش در مهرماه بیشترین تاثیر را در افزایش معنی‌دار تعداد گل در متر مربع و عملکرد گل‌تر و ‌خشک زعفران (به ترتیب تا 46، 61 و 65 درصد) داشت. هم‌چنین تمامی شاخص‌های مورد مطالعه بنه‌های دختری زعفران به‌طور معنی‌داری تحت تاثیر زمان پخش مالچ کلش گندم قرار گرفت. در بین تیمارهای مورد بررسی، بیشترین افزایش در عملکرد بنه‌های بیش از 12 گرم و عملکرد کل بنه‌های دختری زعفران در نتیجه کاربرد 8 تن مالچ کلش در مهرماه مشاهده شد. به‌طوری که کاربرد تیمار ذکر شده در مقایسه با شاهد، عملکرد بنه‌های با وزن بیش از 12 گرم و عملکرد کل بنه‌های زعفران را به‌ترتیب تا 104 و 103 درصد افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of different levels of applied wheat straw in different dates on saffron (Crocus sativus L.) daughter corms and flower initiation criteria in the second year

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 1
  • Alireza Koocheki 1
  • Abdollah Molafilabi 2
  • S. Mohammad Seyyedi 3
1 Professor of Center of Excellence for Special Crops, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Faculty Member of Institute For Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 PhD Student of Crop Ecology Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effects of different levels of applied wheat straw as mulch in different dates on flower characteristics and corms behavior of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the second year, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. The experimental treatments were all combination of different levels of wheat straw as mulch (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t. ha-1) based on surface applied method in three different dates (June, August and October). The results showed that the applied wheat straw as mulch in different dates had significant effects on flower characteristics of saffron (flower number, fresh and dried flower and stigma+ style yields). Based on these results, applied wheat straw as mulch in October had highest effects on increasing flower number, fresh and dried flower yields (by 46, 61 and 65%, respectively). In addition, applied wheat straw as mulch had significant effects on number and yield of replacement corms. The applied straw as mulch in October increased yield of replacement corms with 12 g or higher weight and total corm yield of saffron by 104 and 103 %, respectively, as compared to control treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Flowering
  • Saffron corms
  • Wheat mulch
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