مقایسه و بررسی اثر تراکم و وزن بنه بر عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد زعفران در بسترهای خاکی و هیدروپونیک در تونل پلاستیکی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دوره دکترای اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 استاد گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

زعفران گران‌بهاترین ادویه جهاناست که امروزه کاربردهای وسیعی درصنایع غذایی، دارویی، صنعتی و رنگرزی دارد. متوسط عملکرد در ایران 83/4 کیلوگرم در هکتار می‌باشد. این تحقیق با هدف بررسی اثر وزن و تراکم بنه برعملکرد و اجزاء عملکردگیاه زعفران تحت شرایط کشت خاکی و هیدروپونیک انجام گرفت. برای این منظور، سه اندازه مختلف بنه (8-6 ،10-8 و 10 گرم به بالا) و سه تراکم بنه (50،100و 150 بنه در مترمربع) در آزمایش فاکتوریل درقالب طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار درداخل تونل پلاستیکی پیش‌بینی شد. صفات مورد بررسی در این طرح عبارتند از تعداد گل ، وزن تر و خشک گل، وزن تر و خشک کلاله ، وزن تر و خشک خامه و وزن تر و خشک کلاله و خامه. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات اصلی نوع بستر، اندازه و تراکم بنه در تمامی صفات معنی‌داربود. اثرات متقابل نوع بسترو اندازه بنه درتمامی صفات درسطح 5 در صد معنی‌دار بوده به جزء وزن خشک گل، وزن خشک کلاله وخامه که تفاوت معنی‌دار دیده نشده است. همچنین اثرات متقابل بین نوع بستر و تراکم بنه، اندازه و تراکم بنه و اثرات متقابل بین نوع بستر، اندازه و تراکم بنه درهیچ کدام از صفات موردمطالعه معنی‌دار نشده است. بیشترین عملکرد زعفران در بنه‌های 10 گرم به بالا به‌دست آمد که باکاهش اندازه بنه، تمامی صفات کاهش معنی داری پیدا کرد، همچنین نتایج نشان داد که کمترین عملکرد (وزن خشک کلاله) در بستر کشت هیدروپونیک با تراکم 50 بنه در مترمربع به میزان 14/4 کیلو گرم در هکتار و بیشترین عملکرد در بستر کشت خاکی و با تراکم 150 بنه در مترمربع معادل 36/7 کیلوگرم در هکتار و در سال اول حاصل شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of plant density and corm weight on yield and yield components of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under soil, hydroponic and plastic tunnel cultivation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Mollafilabi 1
  • Alireza Koocheki 2
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Mahdi Nassiri Mahallati2 1
1 PhD student of Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Professor of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Saffron is the most precious spice crop in the world which nowadays has nutritional, medical and industrial importance. Its average yield is 4.83 kg/ha in Iran. The research was conducted to investigate the effect of corm weight and its density on yield and yield components of saffron under soil, hydroponic and plastic tunnel conditions. The effect of three different weights of corm (6-8, 8-10 and more than 10 g) and also three different densities of corm (50, 100 and 150 corms per m²) was investigated in factorial experiment based on CRD with three replications. The traits which were investigated included: number of flower, fresh weight of flower, fresh and dry weight of stigma and style, and economic yield. The results showed that the main effects of bed types. Weight and corm density were significant in all traits. Interactions of bed type and corm weight were significant at 5% except for flower dry weight, and dry weight of stigma + style that were not significant .As well, Interactions of bed type and corm density, corm weight and density and all interactions of bed type ,corm weight and density were not significant in all traits. The heavier corms (more than 10 g) provided the highest yield. By decreasing corm weight, all traits were reduced significantly. Also the results showed that least yield(stigma dry weight) obtained from hydroponic cultivation with 50/ m² yielded 4.14 kg/ha and increase in yield (dry weight of stigma) was obtained under soil cultivation and in the density of 150 corms/m² economical yield was equivalent to 7.36 kg/ha in the first year.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Saffron
  • Cultivation systems
  • Dry stigma yield
  • Number of corms per m²
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