تأثیر سطوح مختلف عمق کاشت و مقادیر مختلف بنه بر عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران (.Crocus sativus L)

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.

2 استاد گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشیار گروه اگروتکنولوژی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

10.22048/jsat.2017.85800.1232

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه تاثیر سطوح مختلف عمق کاشت و مقادیر مختلف بنه بر عملکرد گل و بنه زعفران، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، به صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل مقادیر مختلف بنه برای کاشت در چهار سطح 7، 8، 9 و 10 تن بنه در هکتار و عمق کاشت بنه در سه سطح 15،10 و 20 سانتی‏متر از سطح خاک بود. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که عملکرد و تعداد بنه‌های دختری تحت تأثیر اثرات ساده تیمار ها قرار گرفت. اثر متقابل مقادیر مختلف بنه و عمق کاشت تأثیر معنی‌داری بر سایر صفات مورد بررسی گل و بنه زعفران داشت. افزایش مقدار بنه تا 9 تن در هکتار و کاهش عمق کاشت به 10 سانتی‌متر سبب افزایش عملکرد گل تر، وزن خشک کلاله، تعداد گل و قطر بنه‌های دختری در سال اول شد. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد بنه دختری مربوط به تیمار 8 تن بنه در هکتار بود به طوری‌که عملکرد بنه دختری نسبت به تیمار 7 تن بنه در هکتار و 10 تن بنه در هکتار به ترتیب 2/33 و 9/15 درصد افزایش داشت، همچنین بیشترین و کمترین وزن خشک بنه در عمق کاشت 10 و 20 سانتی‌متر به دست آمد. تیمار 10 تن بنه در هکتار با تعداد بنه معادل 173 بنه در متر مربع بیشترین تعداد بنه دختری را به خود اختصاص داد به طوری که افزایش مقدار بنه کشت شده از 7 تن به 10 تن باعث افزایش 101 درصدی در تعداد بنه های دختری تولید شده شد. باتوجه به عملکرد پایین زعفران در سال اول، افزایش مقدار بنه مصرفی تا حد مطلوب و کاهش عمق کاشت می‏تواند علاوه بر افزایش عملکرد گل زعفران در سال اول منجر به تولید بنه‌های دختری درشت‌تر جهت عملکرد بهتر در سال‏های بعد شود

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of different amounts of corms and planting depths of corms on flower and corm yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ffatemeh Moallem Banhangi 1
  • Parviz Rezvani Moghaddam 2
  • Ghorban Ali Asadi 3
  • Surur Khorramdel 3
1 Phd student of Agroecology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad..
2 Professor of AgroEcology Department of Agronomy Faculty of Agriculture Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 Associate Professor of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of different amounts of corms and planting depths of corms on flower and corm yield of saffron, an experiment was conducted in a factorial layout based on complete randomized block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during 2015- 2016 growing seasons. The experimental treatments were all combination of four quantity of corms (7, 8, 9 and 10 t/ha) and three planting depth (10, 15 and 20 cm). The results showed that different quantity and planting depth of saffron corms had significant effects on the most of the studied criteria. The results revealed that flower yield, stigma dry weight, number of flowers and replacement corms per square meter increased by increasing the amount of corm by 9 t/ha and reduced planting depth by 10 cm. The maximum replacement corms yield was obtained in 8 t/ha corm treatment which was 33.25 percent higher than 7 t/ha and 15.99 percent was higher than 10 t/ha corm treatments. The maximum and minimum replacement corms yield were shown in 10 and 20 cm planting depth, respectively. The higher number of replacement corms (173 corm in m2) were obtained in 10 t/ha corms, Therefore, increasing the amount of corms from 7 to 10 t/ha will increase the number of replacement corms by 101 percent while there were no significant differences between the rests of treatments. According to the low yield of saffron in the first year, it seems increasing the amount of corm till the optimum range and reducing the planting depths of corms will increase saffron flowers yield in the first year and lead to produce bigger replacement corms for next years. Hence, optimum amount of corm and planting depths will increase farmers’ income in the first year.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corms diameter
  • diameter of corms
  • Stigma dry weight
  • Style length
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