تاثیر زمان قطع آخرین آبیاری و منابع مختلف کودی بر خصوصیات بنه زعفران

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد تولیدات گیاهی، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

2 استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 دانشیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربت حیدریه

10.22048/jsat.2018.104466.1268

چکیده

به‏منظور بررسی تأثیر زمان قطع آخرین آبیاری و منابع مختلف کودی بر خصوصیات بنه‌ زعفران (Crocus sativus L.)، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپیلت‏پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه‌ چهار ‌ساله تحقیقاتی جهاد کشاورزی واقع در روستای لاله‌زار، شهرستان بردسیر، استان کرمان در سال 95-1394 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل زمان قطع آخرین آبیاری (15 روز قبل از زمان عرف منطقه (اول اردیبهشت)، عرف (15 اردیبهشت) و 15 روز بعد از عرف (2 خرداد)) به عنوان عامل اصلی و منابع مختلف کودی (کود گاوی 40 تن در هکتار، کود مرغی 15 تن در هکتار، ورمی‏کمپوست 10 تن در هکتار، اسید هیومیک 2 کیلوگرم در هکتار و کود شیمیایی شامل 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره و 140 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسفر و پتاسیم) به عنوان عامل فرعی بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تأثیر تیمار قطع آبیاری بر وزن تر و خشک بنه و متوسط وزن بنه معنی­دار (p≤0.05) بود، ولی تأثیر معنی­داری بر تعداد بنه در واحد سطح و تعداد جوانه در بنه نداشت. تأخیر در قطع آبیاری منجر به کاهش معنی‏دار صفات شد. به‏طوری‏که، بیشترین میزان وزن تر (5/516 گرم در متر مربع) و خشک (8/294 گرم در متر مربع) بنه و متوسط وزن بنه (21/4 گرم) در تیمار قطع زود هنگام آبیاری (قبل از عرف) حاصل شد. تأثیر منابع کودی نیز بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی معنی‏دار بود. تمامی تیمارهای کودی به استثنای اسید هیومیک منجر به افزایش معنی‏دار وزن بنه نسبت به تیمار شاهد شدند. استفاده از ورمی‏کمپوست منجر به تولید بیشترین تعداد بنه در متر مربع (1/137)، وزن تر بنه (6/595 گرم در متر مربع)، وزن خشک بنه (341 گرم در متر مربع) و متوسط وزن بنه (30/4 گرم) شد. بیشترین تعداد جوانه در بنه (83/3) نیز در تیمار مصرف کود شیمیایی بدست آمد. بطورکلی، قطع آبیاری در اوایل اردیبهشت و استفاده از کود آلی ورمی‏کمپوست بهترین شرایط را برای تولید بنه زعفران در منطقه بردسیر کرمان دارا بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of the last irrigation cut-off time and various fertilizer resources on corm characteristics of saffron

نویسندگان [English]

  • Anis Rezaei 1
  • Rohollah Moradi 2
  • Hassan Feizi 3
1 M.Sc. student Medicinal Plants, Department of Plant Productions, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat Heydariye, Iran
2 Assistance Professor, Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran, Iran
3 Associate Professor in Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to evaluate the effect of last irrigation cut-off time and various fertilizer resources on corm of saffron (Crocus sativus L.), an experiment was conducted in a split-plot arranged as a randomized complete block design with three replications and 18 treatments in a four year research farm of Jihad ministry located in Lalezar village, Bardsir region, Kerman province, in 2015-2016. The experimental treatments were irrigation cut-off time  (conventional time  (5 May), 15 days before the conventional time (20 April) and 15 days after conventional time (20 May)) assigned to main plot, and nutritional resources (cow manure 40 t ha-1, hen manure15 t.ha-1, vermicompost 10 t.ha-1, humic acid 2 kg.ha-1, and chemical fertilizer containing 200 kg.ha-1 urea and 140 kg.ha-1 P and K) as subplot. The analysis of variance results showed that the effect of irrigation cut-off treatment was significant on corm fresh, dry weight and average weight (P≤0.05), but had no significant effect on the number of corm per area and number of buds per corm. The results showed that the delay in irrigation cut-off led to a significant decrease in traits. As such, the highest corm fresh (561.5 g.m-2) and dry (294.8 g.m-2) weight and average weight of the corm (4.9 gr) were found in earlier irrigation cut-off treatment (before the conventional time). The effect of fertilizer resources on all the studied traits was significant. All the fertilizer treatments with the exception of humic acid, resulted in a significant increase in corm weight compared to control treatment. Application of vermicompost led to the production of the highest number of corm in m-2 (137.1), the corm fresh weight (595.6 g.m-2), dry weight (341 g.m-2) and average weight (4.30 g). The highest number of buds in corm (3.83) was found in chemical fertilizer treatment. In general, the results showed that irrigation cut-off in April with the using vermicompost had the best conditions for producing saffron corm in the Bardsir region of Kerman.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Conventional irrigation
  • Cow manure
  • Hen manure
  • Humic acid
  • Vermicompost

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