عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to investigate the effect of spreading time and application rates of wheat straw as mulch on Saffron corm and flower yield, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Gonabad Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station, Center for Research and Agricultural Education and Natural Resources of Khorasan Razavi in years 2015-16. The treatments were all combination of wheat straw in four levels (2, 4, 6 and 8 t.ha-1) and time of wheat straw spreading in three dates (22 June, 6 July and 23August). The results showed that the rate and time of straw application and their interaction had significant effect on all studied characteristics of saffron flower. Spreading of wheat straw at 22 June compared to 6 July and 23August had the highest significant effect on increasing flower number, fresh flower yield, dry stigma and style yield (up to 41.7, 16.9 and 50 percent, respectively). In addition, all studied criteria of saffron replacement corms were significantly affected by the time of wheat straw spreading, different levels of wheat straw application and their interactions. Among the studied treatments, the highest corm yield in terms of more than 8g (595.65 g) and total saffron replacement corms yield were obtained in applying 8 t.ha-1 wheat straw at 22 June (1163 g). Compared to the treatment of 2 tons per hectare, the remnants on the same date show an increase of 112.2 and 12.9 percent, respectively.
Aghaei, M., and Rezagholizadeh, M. 2011. Iran's comparative advantage in production of saffron. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development 25: 121–132. (In Persian).
Alizadeh, A., Sayari, N., Ahmadian, J., and Mohamadian, A. 2009. Study for zoning the most appropriate time of irrigation of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Khorasan Razavi, north and southern provinces. Journal of Water and Soil 23 (1): 109-118. (In Persian with English Summary).
Amirshekari, H., Sorooshzadeh, A., Modaress Sanavy, A.M., and Jalali Javaran, M. 2007. Effects of root-zone temperature, corm size, and gibberellin on vegetative
growth of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resources 14 (5): 96-104.
Arsalani, F., Rasouli, S.J., and Asgharzadeh, K. 2015. The effect of meteorological factors (rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, freezing days and sunny hours) on yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Kashmar and Ghaenat Towns. Saffron Agronomy and Technology 3 (1): 66-75. (In Persian with English Summary).
Azizi-Zohan, A., Kamgar Haghighi, A.A., and Sepaskhah, A.R. 2008. Crop and pan coefficients for saffron in a semi-arid region of Iran. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 270-278.
Basereh, A., Eslami, S.V., and Aghajani, M. 2015. Evaluating theimpact of type and amount of plant stubble mulch on temperature fluctuations of the soil surface. 6th Iranian Weed Science conference, Birjand, 10-12 September 2015, pp. 551-554. (In Persian with English Summary).
Bastian, F., Bouziri, L., Nicolardot, B., and Ranjard, L. 2009. Impact of wheat straw decomposition on successional patterns of soil microbial community structure. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41: 262–275.
Behboodi, B.S., and Samadi, L. 2004. The morphological study of amyloplast distribution in Saffron(Crocus sativus L.)fibrous roots. ISHS Acta Horticulturae. First International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Biotechnology 650 (3): 49–54.
Behdani, M.A., Koocheki, A., Nassiri, M., and Rezvani Moghaddam, P. 2006. The evaluation of quantitative relationships between saffron yield and nutrition (on farm trial). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 3 (1): 1–14. (In Persian with English Summary).
Chen, S.Y., Zhang, X.Y., Pei, D., Sun, H.Y., and Chen, S.L. 2007. Effects of straw mulching on soil temperature, evaporation and yield of winter wheat: Field experiments on the North China Plain. Annals of Applied Biology 150 (3): 261–268.
Cheraghi, S., Rafiei, M., and Khorgami, A. 2011. The effect of foliar application of nitrogen at different dates, planting method on grain yield, and yield components of mung bean in the environmental conditions of Khoramabad. Journal of Crop Physiology 3 (9): 15-29. (In Persian with English Summary).
Du Prezz, C.C., Steyn, J.T., and Kotze, E. 2001. Long-term effects of wheat residue management on some fertility indicators of a semi-arid plinth sol. Soil and Tillage Research 63 (1-2): 25–33.
Danga, B.O., and Wakindiki, I.I.C. 2009. Effect of placement of straw mulch on soil conservation, nutrient accumulation, and wheat yield in a humid Kenyan highland. Journal of Tropical Agricuture 47 (1): 30–36.
Gresta, F., Avola, G., Lombardoa, G.M., Siracusa, L., and Ruberto, G. 2009. Analysis of flowering, stigma yield and qualitative traits of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as affected by environmental conditions. Horticultural Sciences 119 (3): 320–324.
Jamshidian, R., and Khajehpoor, M.R. 1999. Effects of seedbed preparation methods on soil nutrition, compaction and mungbean establishment after wheat harvesting. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 2 (3): 35-46. (In Persian with English Summary).
Jorabloo, A., ghoshchi, F., Morteza, A., and Silispoor, M. 2009. Effect of seedbed preparation and barley residue on corn forage yield and quality. Crop Ecophysiology 1 (3): 44-53. (In Persian with English Summary).
Kafi, M., Rashed Mohassel, M.H., Koocheki, A., and Mollafilabi, K. 2002. Saffron, Production and Processing. Zaban va Adab Publication, Mashhad. 276 p. (In Persian).
Kamkar, B., and Mahdavi Damghani, A. 2008. Principle of Sustainable Agriculture. University Jihad of Mashhad Press. 316 p.
Khan, I.A. 2004. Induced mutagenic variability in saffron (Crocus sativus L.). ISHS Acta Horticulture. First International Symposium on Saffron Biology and Biotechnology 650: 281–284.
Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., and Jafari, L. 2016. Study of the impact of climate change on agriculture in Iran: 1- anticipating agro-climatic status of the future. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 13 (4): 651-664. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Siahmarguee, A., Azizi, G., and Jahani, M. 2011b. Effect of high density planting and sowing depth on agronomic characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
and corms behavior. Journal of Agroecology 1 (3): 36-49. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Jahani, M., Tabrizi, L., and Mohammad Abadi, A.A. 2011. Investigation on the Effect of biofertilizer, chemical fertilizer and plant density on yield and corm criteria of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Water and Soil 25: 196–206. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Alizadeh, A., and Ganjali, A.S. 2010. Effect of temperature increase on flowering behavior of saffron. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 8 (2): 324-335. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Rezvani Moghaddam, P., and Fallahi, H.R. 2010. Effects of planting time and irrigation on quantitative indices of saffron. In: Fifth National Symposium of Red Gold (Saffron), Qayen, Iran, November. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Alizadeh, A., and Ganjali, A. 2010. Modelling the impact of climate change on flowering behaviour of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal Field Crops Research 7 (2): 583–594. (In Persian with English Summary).
Koocheki, A., Gholami, A., Mahvadi Damghani, A., and Tabrizi, L. 2007. Organic Field Crop Handbook. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Press, Iran. 385 p. (In Persian).
Koocheki, A., Nassiri Mahallati, M., Kamali, G.A., and Shahandeh, H. 2006. Potential impacts of climate change on agroclimatic indicators in Iran. Arid land Research and Management 20 (3): 245-259.
Kumar, R., Singh, V., Devi, K., Sharma, M., Singh, M.K., and Ahuja, P.S. 2008. State of art of saffron (Crocus sativus L.)agronomy: A comprehensive review. Food Reviews International 25 (1): 44-85.
Limon-Ortega, A., Govaerts, B., and Sayre, K.D. 2008. Straw management, crop rotation, and nitrogen source effect on wheat grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy 29 (1): 21-28.
JafarBiglo, M., and Mobaraki, Z. 2009. Land suitability of Qazvin province for saffron cultivation based on multi-criteria decision-making pproach. Physical Geography Research 66: 101-119. (In Persian with English Summary).
Molina, R.V., Garcıa Luis, A., Coll, V., Ferrer, C., and Valero, M. 2004. Flower formation in the saffron Crocus (Crocus sativus L.). The role of temperature. Acta Horticulture 650: 39–47.
Molina, R.V., Valero, M., Navaro, Y., Garcia Luis, A., and Guardiola, J.L. 2004. The effect of time of corm lifting and duration of incubation at inductive temperature on flowering in the saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Scientia Horticulturae 103 (1): 79-91.
Molina, R., Valero, M., Navarro, Y., Guardiola, J., and Garcıa-Luis, A. 2005. Temperature effects on flower formation (Crocus sativus L.). Spain: Scientia Horticulturae 103: 361-379.
Monzon, J.P., Sadras, V.O., and Andrade, F.H. 2006. Fallow soil evaporation and water storage as affected by stubble in sub-humid (Argentina) and semi-arid (Australia) environments. Field Crops Research 98: 83–90
Naderi Darbaghshahi, M.R., Khajebashi, S.M., Banitaba, S.A., and Dehdashti, S.M. 2009. Effects of planting method, density and depth on yield and production period of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Isfahan region. Seed and Plant Production 24 (4): 643–657. (In Persian with English Summary).
Najafinezhad, H., Javaheri, M.A., Ravari, S.Z.A., and Azad Shahraki, F.A.D. 2009. Effect of crop rotation and wheat residue management on grain yield of maize cv KSC704 and some soil properties. Seed and Plant Production Journal 25 (2): 247–260. (In Persian with English Summary).
Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Boroomand Rezazadeh, Z., and Tabrizi, L. 2007. Effects of corm size and storage period on allocation of characters of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) under assimilates in different parts of saffron plant (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research 5 (1): 155-166. (In Persian with English Summary).
Nehvi, F.A., Lone, A.A., Khan, M.A., and Maghdoomi, M.I. 2010. Comparative study on effect of nutrient management on growth and yield of saffron under temperate conditions of Keshmir. Acta Horticulturae. Third International Symposium on Saffron: Forthcoming Challenges in Cultivation, Research and Economics, 850: 165–170.
Pandey, D., Pandey, V.S., and Srivastava, R.P. 1979. A note on the effect of the size of corms on the sprouting and flowering of saffron. Progressive Horticulture 6: 89-92.
Rezvani Moghaddam, P., Koocheki, A., Molafilabi, A., and Seyyedi, S.M. 2013. Effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on replacement corm and flower yield of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences 15: 234–246. (In Persian with English Summary).
Sadeghi, B. 1993. Effect of corm weight on saffron flowering. Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology pp. 52-53. (In Persian).
Sadeghi, B. 1996. Effects of corm size on flower production in saffron. Annual Report Scientific and Industrial Research Organization of Khorasan, Mashhad, Iran. (In Persian).
Sadeghi, B., Razavi, M., and Mohajeri, M. 1987. Effect of Chemical Elements on Saffron Cultivation Improvement. Khorasan Agricultural Research Center Publication. (In Persian).
Shabahang, J., Khorramdel, S., Amin Ghafori, A., and Gheshm, R. 2013. Effects on management of crop residues and cover crop planting on density and population of weeds and agronomical characteristics of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Journal of Saffron Research 1: 57–72. (In Persian with English Summary).