تأثیر مصرف برخی کودهای شیمیایی و بیولوژیک بر خصوصیات کمی وکیفی زعفران زراعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ‌ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت واصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد اسلامشهر

2 دانشیار موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب

3 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شاهد

چکیده

این مطالعه باهدف بررسی خصوصیات کیفی و کمی زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) تحت تأثیر مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و نیز تلقیح با باکتری‌های محرک رشد به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 92-1391 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی زعفران دانشگاه شاهد انجام شد. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل کود شیمیایی نیتروژن در سه سطح صفر، 25 و 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار و دو سطح کاربرد و عدم کاربرد کود زیستی شامل سودوموناس‌پوتیدا و باسیلوس‌لنتوس بودند. صفات مورد بررسی شامل وزن اندام هوایی، وزن تازه گل، تعداد گل در واحد سطح و وزن‌تر و خشک کلاله، میزان پروتئین، فسفر، آهن و روی‌،سطح و محتوی کلروفیل برگ، سافرانال، پیکروکروسین و کروسین کلاله بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تلفیق 50 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن به‌همراه کود زیستی باعث افزایش حدود 217 درصدی عملکرد خشک کلاله نسبت به شاهد شد. با مصرف 25 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن سافرانال و کروسین کلاله به‌ترتیب 13/5 و 9/10 درصد کاهش یافت. کاربرد تلفیقی 25 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و کود زیستی بر مقدار پیکروکروسین به میزان 90/11 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزود. مصرف همزمان 50 کیلوگرم کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و کود زیستی کارآمدترین تیمار در افزایش عملکرد کلاله و خصوصیات کیفی برگ زعفران بود. در این تیمار میزان فسفر، روی و مس برگ زعفران به ترتیب 05/83، 36/69 و 6/86 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد افزایش یافت. به‌طورکلی تلقیح بنه‌های زعفران با باکتری‌های سودوموناس و باسیلوس با اثر بر جذب عناصر غذایی باعث بهبود اکثر صفات کمی و کیفی زعفران شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of some chemical fertilizer and biofertilizer on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Saffron

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Heydari 1
  • Hossein Besharati 2
  • Saeideh Maleki Farahani 3
1 Graduate student department of crop production, Department of crop production and plant breeding, Islamic Azad University of Islamshahr
2 Associate Professor of Soil and Water Research Institute
3 Assistant professor of Department of crop production and plant breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Science, Shahed University
چکیده [English]

In this research, effects of chemical and biological fertilizers on qualitative and quantitative traits of saffron, were evaluated in a field experiment as randomized complete block design with three replications at Saffron Research Farm of Shahed University during growing season of 2012-2013. Experimental factors were chemical nitrogen fertilizer (0, 25 and 50 kg.ha-1) and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria including Pseudomonas and Bacillus as biofertilizer (inoculation and uninoculation). The results indicated that complete application of chemical fertilizer with biofertilizer enhanced yield of saffron, up to 217%, compared to control. The highest yield obtained in application of biofertilizer and 50 kg.ha-1 chemical fertilizer. It is worth noting that control (no inoculation) resulted in highest percentage of ingredients of stigma. Application of 50 kg.ha-1 of fertilizer was caused severe loss of quality traits in stigma, as safranal and crocin contents decreased by 5.13% and 10.9%, respectively. Integrated application of 25 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and bio-fertilizer increased the picrocrocin up to 11.9% compared to control. Application of 50 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer along with biofertilizer was the efficient treatment in increment of stigma yield and qualitative characteristics of saffron leaves. The concentration of phosphorus, zinc and copper increased up to 83.05, 69.36 and 86.6%, respectively compared to control. Totally, Pseudomonas and Bacillus inoculation increased most of the qualitative and quantitative traits of saffron through nutrients uptake.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crocin
  • Inoculation
  • Integrated fertilizer management
  • Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
  • Safranal
  • Stigma

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