نقش اندازه بنه مادری و نوع کود بر کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در زعفران زراعی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 کارشناس ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

3 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

اندازه بنه مادری و مدیریت تغذیه، از مهم‌ترین عوامل مؤثر بر میزان جذب نیتروژن در زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) می‌باشد. به‌منظور بررسی نقش کودهای دامی، شیمیایی و اندازه بنه مادری بر کارایی جذب و مصرف نیتروژن در زعفران، آزمایشی در دو سال زراعی 92-1391 و 93-1392 به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به اجرا در آمد. در این مطالعه، اندازه بنه مادری در چهار سطح (4 گرم و کمتر از آن (کوچک)، 1/4 تا 8 گرم (متوسط)، 1/8 تا 12 گرم (نسبتاً بزرگ) و بیش از 12 گرم (بزرگ)) و منابع مختلف کود در سه سطح (کود دامی، کود شیمیایی (نیتروژن + فسفر) و شاهد (عدم مصرف کود)) به ترتیب عامل اول و دوم آزمایش در نظر گرفته شدند. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، در هر دو سال اجرای، با افزایش اندازه بنه مادری جهت کاشت (از سطح کوچک به بزرگ)، میزان نیتروژن (بر حسب گرم در مترمربع) در بنه‌های دختری و کل بوته زعفران به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. علاوه بر این، استفاده از بنه‌های مادری بزرگ‌تر جهت کاشت به‌طور معنی‌داری منجر به افزایش کارایی جذب و مصرف نیتروژن در زعفران شد. همچنین در سال اول و دوم اجرای آزمایش، کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در نتیجه مصرف کود دامی به ترتیب به میزان 21 و 61 درصد بیش از کود شیمیایی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of mother corm size and type of fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency in saffron

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Koocheki 1
  • Mehdi Jamshid Eyni 2
  • Seyyed Mohammad Seyyedi 3
1 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 M.Sc. Graduated in Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
3 PhD. Student of Crop Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Mother corm size and nutrient management are the most important factors in relation to nitrogen uptake of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). In order to investigate the effects of mother corms size and type of fertilizer on uptake and use efficiency of nitrogen in Saffron, a field experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during the years 2013 and 2014. The mother corm size (4 g and lower (small), 4.1–8 g (medium), 8.1-12 g (relatively large) and over 12 g (large)) and fertilizer sources (cow manure 25 t ha-1, chemical fertilizer (N+P) and control) were the first and second experimental factors, respectively. In both years, the larger mother corms (8.1-12 g and more) significantly resulted in greater nitrogen content (g m-2) of replacement corms and whole plant of saffron. In addition, uptake and use efficiency of nitrogen were significantly increased with increasing mother corms size. In the first and the second years, nitrogen use efficiency in manure treatment was significantly higher than that of chemical fertilizer (by 21 and 61%, respectively).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Replacement corm
  • Chemical fertilizer
  • Organic fertilizer
  • Nitrogen uptake efficiency

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