اثر آللوپاتیک عصاره آبی برگ و بنه زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) بر جوانه‌زنی و رشد گیاهچه علف‌پشمکی (Bromus tectorum L.) و خاکشیر (Descurainia sophia L.)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

این پژوهش به‌منظور مطالعه و ارزیابی خاصیت آللوپاتیک عصاره آبی برگ و بنه زعفران بر جوانه‌زنی و شاخص‌های رشد گیاهچه علف پشمکی و خاکشیر (دو علف هرز رایج مزارع زعفران) در سال 1392 در آزمایشگاه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بیرجند انجام شد. آزمایش برای هر گونه علف هرز به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل نوع اندام زعفران در دو سطح (برگ و بنه) و غلظت عصاره در 5 سطح (0، 5/0، 1، 5/1 و 2 درصد وزنی-حجمی عصاره آبی) بود. غلظت‌های مختلف عصاره برگ و بنه زعفران درصد جوانه‌زنی هر دو گونه علف هرز را کاهش داد. کمترین درصد جوانه‌زنی علف پشمکی و خاکشیر به ترتیب با 65 و 66 درصد کاهش نسبت به شاهد از تیمارهای غلظت 2 درصد عصاره بنه حاصل شد. سرعت جوانه‌زنی علف پشمکی در غلظت 2 درصد عصاره برگ نسبت به شاهد 71 درصد کاهش یافت ولی سرعت جوانه‌زنی خاکشیر تحت تأثیر غلظت‌های متفاوت عصاره برگ و بنه قرار نگرفت. همچنین غلظت‌های متفاوت عصاره برگ و بنه زعفران شاخص‌های طول ساقه‌چه و ریشه‌چه و وزن ساقه‌چه و ریشه‌چه را در گونه‌های مورد مطالعه کاهش داد. برازش مدل لجستیک سه پارامتری، رابطه بین سطوح مختلف عصاره آبی و درصد جوانه‌زنی بذور علف پشمکی و خاکشیر را به‌خوبی توجیه نمود. نتیجه مقایسات گروهی بین عصاره برگ و بنه زعفران نشان داد که بیشترین اثر بازدارندگی صفات در علف پشمکی مربوط به عصاره برگ و در خاکشیر مربوط به عصاره بنه زعفران بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Allelopathic effects of leaf and corm water extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on germination and seedling growth of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeinab Alipoor 1
  • Sohrab Mahmoodi 2
1 M.Sc of Agroecology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand
2 Associate Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted in two factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications at research laboratory of faculty of agriculture in University of Birjand in 2013. Factors included saffron organs at 2 levels (leaves and corms) and water extract concentrations at 5 levels (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent).The allelopathic effects of saffron leaves and corms on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) and downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) were studied in two separate experiments. Results indicated lowest seed germination percentage of downy brome and flixweed were observed at concentration of 2% of corm extract (by 65% and 66% reduce compared to control, respectively). The rate of germination of downy brome decreased (by 71% compared to control) with concentration of 2% of leaf extract but the rate of germination on flixweed was not significantly affected by extract concentrations. Different concentrations of leaf and corm extracts significantly decreased length and weight of plumule and radicals of two weeds. A logistic model provided a successful estimation of relationship between leaf water extract and germination percentage of two weeds. Based on orthogonal comparison tests, the allelopathic inhibition effects of saffron leaves and corms were more on downy brome and flixweed, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allelopathy
  • Length of radical
  • Percent of germination
  • Weight of seedling
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