برآورد آستانه‌های فنولوژیکی‌کشت زعفران در استان اصفهان براساس آمار درجه حرارت روزانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیارآب و هواشناسی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

2 دانشجوی دکتری آب و هواشناسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری

چکیده

در این تحقیق آمار درجه حرارت روزانه‌ ایستگاه‌های هواشناسی، برای برآورد تاریخ احتمال وقوع اولین و آخرین ‌دمای یخبندان، آستانه‌های فنولوژی زعفران، تاریخ گلدهی وآبیاری ارزیابی شد. در ادامه احتمال تاریخ‌های به دست‌آمده با روش‌های مختلف در سطوح احتمال مختلف براساس نرم‌افزارSmada برازش داده شد. برآورد ‌سطح احتمال 95 درصد، به ‌عنوان تاریخ‌ بهینه در محیط نرم‌افزار 3/9ArcGIS با استفاده از روش درون‌یابی کوکریجینگ برای کل استان اصفهان پهنه‌بندی گردید. زمان رخداد دماهای کمینه متأثر از شرایط جغرافیایی و ارتفاعی هر منطقه می‌باشد، به‌ طوری‌ که اولین رخداد دمای یخبندان پاییزه در مناطق مرتفع نیمه‌ غربی استان اصفهان در اوایل آبان‌ماه و در مناطق کم ارتفاع نیمه‌ شرقی در اواخر آذرماه رخ می‌دهد. رخداد دمای شبانه‌روزی، از نیمه اول مهرماه تا نیمه دوم آبان‌ماه متغیر است. از غرب به شرق استان اصفهان زمان رخداد این آستانه تا یک ماه تأخیر دارد. تاریخ بهینه گلدهی زعفران بر اساس شرایط اقلیمی از نیمه اول مهر تا اواخر آبان ماه متغیر است. با در نظر گرفتن تاریخ گلدهی و نیاز درجه روز زعفران، زمان آبیاری قبل از گلدهی از نیمه دوم شهریور ماه در نیمه ‌غربی تا اوایل آبان‌ماه در مناطق شرقی ادامه خواهد داشت. از نظرشرایط دمایی مناطق غرب، مرکز، شمال و شرق استان اصفهان برای توسعه محصول زعفران مناسب‌تر به نظر می‌رسد. بیشترین میزان نیاز آبی براساس تبخیر و تعرق منطقه مورد مطالعه و ضریب گیاهی زعفران، در مراحل میانی، انتهایی و اولیه رخ می‌دهد.        

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The estimation of phenological thresholds of Saffron cultivation in Isfahan province based on the daily temperature statistics

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gholamabbas Fallahghalhary 1
  • Hamzeh Ahmadi 2
1 Assisstant professor, Department of Climatology, Hakim Sabzevari University
چکیده [English]

In this research, the statistics of daily temperature of meteorology stations for estimating the probable occurrence of the first and last frost temperature, the phonological thresholds of saffron and its flowering and irrigation dates were explored. Furthermore, by applying different methods, the probabilities of the attained dates in different probability levels were fit in Smada software. The estimated probability level of 95 percent, as the optimum date, was donated for the entire Isfahan province in ArcGIS9/3 software environment using the interpolation method of Cokriging. The time of occurrence of minimum temperatures is under the influence of the geographical and height condition of each region and the first fall season frost occurs in high regions of the eastern half of Isfahan province at the beginning of November and in the low-lying eastern regions in the late December. The occurrence of daily temperature is changeable from the first half of October and the second half of November. From the west to the east of Isfahan, the time of occurrence of this threshold has a delay of about one month. The optimum flowering date of saffron, based on climatic conditions, is from the first half of October to the late of November. By considering the flowering date and daily temperature requirement of saffron, the irrigation date prior to flowering continues from the second half of September in the western parts and the beginning of November in the eastern regions. From the perspective of thermal condition, the western, central, northern and eastern parts of Isfahan province are more suited to the cultivation and development of saffron product. The amount of water requirement in the study area based on evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of saffron occurred in the mid-season, late season and Initial.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Climate condition
  • Growth degree days
  • Minimum temperature
  • Saffron
  • Water requirement
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