اثر کود دامی و محلول پاشی برگی بر خصوصیات زراعی و عملکرد زعفران (.Crocus sativus L) در مزرعه شش ساله

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشکده علوم و صنایع غذایی گروه زیست فناوری مواد غذایی

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و إصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

زعفران (Crocus sativus L.) گران‌ترین محصول کشاورزی و دارویی است و فراهمی متعادل عناصر غذایی نقش بسیار مهمی در گل‌انگیزی و بهبود رشد بنه‌های مادری آن ایفاء می‌کند. با توجه به اهمیت اثر مدیریت حاصلخیزی خاک بر عملکرد گل زعفران، این آزمایش با هدف بررسی اثر کود دامی و تغذیه برگی بر ویژگی‌های بنه دختری و عملکرد گل در مزرعه شش ساله زعفران در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در محل مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد طی دو سال زراعی 93-1392 و 94-1393 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل یارامیلاکمپلکس (A)، هیومستار (B)، کود کامل (C)، دلفارد (D)، کود دامی از نوع گاوی پوسیده (E)، E+A، E+B، E+C، E+D و شاهد بودند. بیست تن در هکتار کود دامی در اواخر پاییز ماه سال 1392 بر سطح خاک پخش شد. اعمال تیمارهای مختلف تغذیه برگی به صورت محلول‌پاشی برگی طی سه نوبت در مرحله رشد رویشی زعفران در اول صبح در اوایل و اواخر اسفند و اواخر فروردین ماه (با غلظت هفت میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم) انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر کود دامی و محلول‌پاشی بر وزن خشک فلس، برگ و بنه، طول برگ، سرعت ظهور برگ و گل، تعداد گل و وزن تر گل و وزن خشک کلاله زعفران معنی‌دار (01/0≥p) بود. بالاترین سرعت ظهور برگ و گل برای کود دامی+محلول‌پاشی با کود کامل به ترتیب با 34/7 برگ در روز و 17/11 گل در روز مشاهده شد. بیشترین وزن تر گل و وزن خشک کلاله برای کود دامی+محلول‌پاشی با کود کامل به ترتیب با 77/69 و 66/0 گرم بر متر مربع به دست آمد و کمترین میزان برای شاهد با 30/27 و 26/0 گرم بر متر مربع حاصل شد. بدین ترتیب‌، با در نظر گرفتن لزوم بکارگیری مدیریت اکولوژیک و عدم وجود سیستم ریشه‌ای گسترده در زعفران، توصیه می‌شود جهت افزایش تولید به ویژه در مزارع چندساله از کودهای آلی به ویژه کود دامی همراه با تغذیه برگی استفاده گردد.

تازه های تحقیق

 

شکل 1-  مقایسه میانگین اثر کود دامی و محلول­ پاشی بر (الف) سرعت ظهور برگ و (ب) گل زعفران

Figure 1- Mean comparisons for the effect of manure and foliar spraying on (a) leaf and (b) emergence rates of saffron.

میانگین­ های دارای حروف مشترک در هر شکل، تفاوت معنی ­داری بر اساس آزمون LSD ندارند

Means with the same letter (s) in each figure have not significantly difference based on LSD test

 

شکل 2-  مقایسه میانگین اثر کود دامی و محلول ­پاشی بر تعداد گل زعفران

Figure 2- Mean comparisons for the effect of manure and foliar spraying on flower number of saffron.

میانگین­ های دارای حروف مشترک، تفاوت معنی­ داری بر اساس آزمون LSD ندارند

Means with the same letter(s) have not significantly difference based on LSD test

 

شکل 3-  مقایسه میانگین اثر کود دامی و محلول­پاشی بر (الف) وزن‌تر گل و (ب) وزن خشک کلاله زعفران

Figure 3- Mean comparisons for the effect of manure and foliar spraying on (a) fresh weight of flower and (b) dry weight of stigma for saffron.

میانگین­ های دارای حروف مشترک در هر شکل، تفاوت معنی­ داری بر اساس آزمون LSD ندارند

Means with the same letter (s) in each figure have not significantly difference based on LSD test

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Cow Manure and Foliar Spraying on Agronomic Criteria and Yield of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) in a Six Year Old Farm

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdollah Mollafilabi 1
  • Sorour Khorramdel 2
1 Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology
2 Assistant Professor, Agronomy Department, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is the most expensive spice and 95% of its global production is in Iran. In order to study the effects of cow manure and foliar spraying on criteria of daughter corms and flower yield in six year-old saffron, an experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad during two growing seasons of 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. Treatments were Yaramilla complex (A), Humestar (B), True fertilizer (C), Delfard (D), manure fertilizer as composted cow manure (E), A+E, B+E, C+E, D+E and control. Twenty t.ha-1 of cow manure were applied at the end of fall on the soil surface. Foliar nutrient treatments were sprayed at three times during vegetative stage of saffron (7 mg.kg-1). The results showed that the effects of cow manure and foliar spraying were significant on dry weight of tunic, dry weight of leaf, dry weight of corm, leaf length, leaf appearance rate, flower emergence rate, flower number, fresh weight of flower and dry weight of stigma for saffron (p≤0.01). The highest leaf appearance rate and flower emergence rate were observed in C+E with 7.34 leaves per day and 11.7 flowers per day, respectively. The maximum fresh weight of flower and stigma dry weight were obtained in C+E with 69.77 and 0.66 g.m-2, respectively. These lowest amounts were obtained in control with 27.30 and 0.26 g.m-2, respectively. The application of cow manure resulted in enhanced growth and yield of corm and flower. Also, foliar spraying improved flowering rate, flower yield and stigma yield of saffron due to increasing in production assimilates and their translocation to corm and below ground organs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foliar spraying
  • Organic manure
  • Flower emergence rate
  • Stigma weight
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